DY OF THE HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS
Lesson 37, Teaching in Parables (about seed), Matt. 13:1-35;
Lesson 38, A Parable About Treasures, Matt. 13:44-54
Lesson 39, Jesus in Galilee, Encounters Scribes and Pharisees, Matt. 15:1-20; Mark 7:1-23; John 7:1
Lesson 40, The Daughter of a Phoenician Woman Healed,
Matt. 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30
Lesson 41, A Speech Impediment Healed; 4,000 Fed, Matt. 15:29-38; Mark 7:31-8:9
Lesson 42, Meeting an “Adulterous Generation” Seeking a Sign, Matt. 15:39-16:12; Mark 8:10-26
Lesson 43, “I Will Build My Church,” Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21
Lesson 44, Jesus’ Prophecy of His Suffering, Matt. 16:21-28;
Mark 8:31-39; Luke 9:22-27
Lesson 37, Teaching in Parables (about seed), Matt. 13:1-35; Mark 4:26-29
1. What does the word parable mean?
2. Where was Jesus when he began teaching these parables?
3. Give three elements of this parable. ________________________, __________, ________________
4. What would the sower represent? What does the seed represent?
5. What happened to the seed sown by the wayside? What does this teach?
6. What happened to the seed that fell on rocky ground? What does this represent?
7. What happened to the seed that fell among thorns? What does this represent?
8. What happened to the seed that fell on good soil? What does this represent?
9. Why did Jesus choose to speak in parables?
10. What does “hearing” and “not hearing” mean?
11. What prophecy was fulfilled in this?
12. What was the second parable about seed that Jesus gave?
13. Who does the man who slept represent? Who was his enemy?
14. What is a tare? How is it different from good seed?
15. Who do the servants represent and what was their wish?
16. What were they told to do? Why do you think this was said?
17. Jesus said, “the field is the world” (verse 38). What do you think the world here means?
18. What does the explanation Jesus gave tell us about the future of the wicked?
19. Describe what the text says about the size of the mustard seed and its growth.
20. How does a mustard seed describe the Kingdom of Heaven?
21. What prophesy did Jesus fulfill mentioned in verse 35?
Lesson 39, Jesus in Galilee, Encounters Scribes and Pharisees, Matt. 15:1-20; Mark 7:1-23; John 7:1
1. What question did the Scribes and Pharisees ask Jesus?
2. What was the reason the Scribes and Pharisees believed about washing hands?
3. On what Old Testament law was this based? If not on some law what was their basis for hand washing prior to eating?
4. Why do you think they would not enter the market place without bathing first?
5. What prophecy did Jesus say they fulfilled?
6. What makes worship vain? Does it still do that?
7. What example did Jesus use from the law of Moses to show them they were making the word of God void? Please elaborate on this.
8. Based on verse 14, it is normally possible to understand the word of God?
9. What does Jesus say here that actually defiles a person?
10. What did the disciples say to Jesus about what he had just told the Scribes and Pharisees? What answer did he give?
11. What does he mean by, “Let them alone?”
12. Why does John tell us Jesus would go to Galilee and not to Jerusalem?
1. Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with defiled hands? These Pharisees coming from Jerusalem could find nothing wherein Jesus or his disciples transgressed the law, so they eagerly grasped this transgression of the tradition as affording ground for an accusation. FG
But these customary washings were distinct from the ceremonial ablutions; in the former, water was poured upon the hands; in the latter the hands were plunged in water. When, therefore, some of the Pharisees remarked that our Lord’s disciples ate with ‘unwashen hands,’ it is not to be understood literally that they did not at all wash their hands, but that they did not wash them ceremonially according to their own practice. And this was expected of them only as the disciples of a religious teacher; for those refinements were not practiced by the class of people from which the disciples were chiefly drawn.” CGNT
2. [Except they wash their hands] pugmh, the hand to the wrist – Unless they wash the hand up to the wrist, eat not. Several translations are given of this word; that above is from Dr. Lightfoot, who quotes a tradition from the rabbins, stating that the hands were to be thus washed. This sort of washing was, and still continues to be, an act of religion in the eastern countries. It is particularly commanded in the Koran, Surat v. ver. 7, “O believers, when ye wish to pray, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows - and your feet up to the ankles.” Which custom it is likely Mohammed borrowed from the Jews. The Jewish doctrine is this: “If a man neglect the washing, he shall be eradicated from this world.” But instead of pugmh, the fist or hand, the Codex Bezae has puknh, frequently: and several of the Itala have words of the same signification. Bathing is an indispensable prerequisite to the first meal of the day among the Hindoos; and washing the hands and the feet is equally so before the evening meal. ACC
3. The tradition of the elders] The word paradosiv, tradition, has occupied a most distinguished place, both in the Jewish and Christian Church. Man is ever fond of mending the work of his Maker; and hence he has been led to put his finishing hand even to Divine revelation! This supplementary matter has been called paradosiv, from paradidomai, to deliver from hand to hand-to transmit; and hence the Latin term, tradition, from trado, to deliver, especially from one to another; -to hand down. Among the Jews TRADITION signifies what is also called the oral law, which they distinguish from the written law: this last contains the Mosaic precepts, as found in the Pentateuch: the former, the traditions of the elders, i.e. traditions, or doctrines, that had been successively handed down from Moses through every generation, but not committed to writing. The Jews feign that, when GOD gave Moses the written law, he gave him also the oral law, which is the interpretation of the former. This law, Moses at first delivered to Aaron then to his sons Eleazar and Ithamar; and, after these to the seventy-two elders, who were six of the most eminent men chosen out of each of the twelve tribes. These seventy-two, with Moses and Aaron, delivered it again to all the heads of the people, and afterwards to the congregation at large. They say also that, before Moses died, he delivered this oral law, or system of traditions, to JOSHUA, and Joshua to the ELDERS which succeeded him-THEY to the Prophets, and the PROPHETS to each other, till it came to JEREMIAH, who delivered it to BARUCH his scribe, who repeated it to EZRA, who delivered it to the men of the great synagogue, the last of whom was SIMON the Just. By Simon the Just it was delivered to ANTIGONUS of Socho; by him to JOSE the son of Jochanan; by him to JOSE, the son of Joezer; by him to NATHAN the Arbelite, and Joshua the son of Perachiah; and by them to JUDAH the son of Tabbai, and Simeon, the son of Shatah; and by them to SHEMAIAH and ABTALION; and by them to HILLEL; and by Hillel to SIMEON his son, the same who took Christ in his arms when brought to the temple to be presented to the Lord: by SIMEON it was delivered to GAMALIEL his son, the preceptor of St. Paul, who delivered it to SIMEON his son, and he to Rab. JUDAH HAKKODESH his son, who compiled and digested it into the book which is called the MISHNA; to explain which the two Talmuds, called the Jerusalem and Babylyonish Talmuds, were compiled, which are also called the Gemera or complement, because by these the oral law or Mishnah is fully explained. The Jerusalem Talmud was completed about A. D. 300; and the Babylonish Talmud about the beginning of the sixth century. This Talmud was printed at Amsterdam in 12 vols. folio. These contain the whole of the traditions of the elders, and have so explained, or rather frittered away, the words of God, that our Lord might well say, Ye have made the word of God of no effect by your traditions. In what estimation these are held by the Jews, the following examples will prove: “The words of the scribes are lovely beyond the words of the law: for the words of the law are weighty and light, but the words of the scribes are all weighty.” ACC
4. And when they come from the market-place, except they bathe themselves, they eat not. Various types of uncleanness are specified in the Mosaic law. Traditions extended the idea of uncleanness so as to hold the man as probably unclean who had been in the marketplace, where he might have touched an unclean person, and to hold certain cups, pots, and brazen vessels as ceremonially unclean when neither the laws of Moses nor the laws of hygiene declared them to be so. Since the law of Moses ordered the unclean to dip himself in a bath for his cleansing, the tradition of the elders required a like dipping in these cases of uncleanness which they had invented. When we remember that bathing was a daily practice among the Pharisees, we are less surprised at this observance. As to the theory that the tradition of the elders was derived from Moses, Jesus here flatly contradicts it. There is no trustworthy evidence to show that it is of higher antiquity than the time of the return from the Babylonian captivity. FG
5. Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written. Isa 29:13. Jesus does not deny their charge, but justifies his disciples by attacking the whole traditional system, basing his attack upon a pointed prophecy which condemns it. FG
6. The Greek word for “vain” is mathn. It is defined as, “in vain, to no purpose, fruitlessly.” – ER. The worship of God must have the right object – God (Matt. 4:10), the right disposition and guidelines (John 4:24). Jesus accused these Pharisees of not having their hearts right, saying, “their heart is far from me (God).” He accused them of leaving the word of God for their traditions. This, he said, constitutes worship that is futile and has no purpose. God cannot be worshipped accidentally. There must be purpose.
7. But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or his mother, That wherewith thou mightest have been profited by me is Corban, that is to say, Given to God. Leaving for a moment the main question concerning uncleanness and washing, Jesus makes good his indictment against their tradition by giving an example of the mischievous way in which it set aside God’s commandments. The law required the honoring of parents, and for any one to cast off his parents in their old age, thus subjecting them to beggary or starvation, was to do more than to speak evil of them. Such conduct was practically to curse them, and to incur the death penalty for so doing. But at this point the Pharisees interfered with their tradition, which taught that a son could say of that part of his estate by which his parents might be profited, It is a gift; that is, a gift to God, and by thus dedicating that part to God, he would free himself from his obligation to his parents. FG
8. And he called to him the multitude again, and said unto them. Having been accused by the scribes and Pharisees of a breach of their tradition, Jesus points out to them generally the iniquity of tradition, for it lay within their power as leaders to remedy the whole system of things. Having done this, he turns to the multitude and answers before them as to the offense with which he is specifically charged. Thus he gives to the leaders general principles, and to the common people the single instance. FG – [Jesus would never tell anyone to do what is not possible. As he said, “hear and understand” he shows clearly that his teaching are understandable and expect all men to do so. (See John 7:17; 8:32).]
9. These uncleannesses worked no spiritual defilement, but were merely typical of such; for the food in no way touched or affected the mind or soul, the fountains of spiritual life, but only the corporeal organs, which have no moral susceptibility. The Pharisees had erred in confusing legal and spiritual defilement, and had added error to error by multiplying the causes of defilement in their tradition. FG
That which cometh out of the man. His words; the expression of his thoughts and feelings; his conduct, as the expression of in- ward malice, anger, covetousness, lust, etc.
Defileth the man. Is really polluted, or offensive in the sight of God. They render the soul corrupt and abominable in the sight of God. AB
10. Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, when they heard this saying? The entire speech offended them. He charged them with hypocrisy. He showed that their tradition, which they reverenced as a revelation from God, led them into sin, and he disturbed their self-complacency by showing that the ceremonial cleanness, which was founded on tradition, and in which they prided themselves, was worthless in comparison with the moral cleanness required by God’s law, which they had ignored. It grieved the disciples to see Jesus offend these reverend gentlemen from Jerusalem. Like many modern disciples their respect for men counteracted their zeal for truth. FG
11. [Let them alone] afete autouv, give them up, or leave them. These words have been sadly misunderstood. Some have quoted them to prove that blind and deceitful teachers should not be pointed out to the people, nor the people warned against them; and that men should abide in the communion of a corrupt Church, because that Church had once been the Church of God, and in it they had been brought up; and to prove this they bring Scripture, for, in our present translation, the words are rendered, let them alone: but the whole connection of the place evidently proves that our blessed Lord meant, give them up, have no kind of religious connection with them, and the strong reason for which he immediately adds, because they are blind leaders. This passage does not at all mean that blind leaders should not be pointed out to the people, that they may avoid being deceived by them; for this our Lord does frequently, and warns his disciples, and the people in general, against all such false teachers as the scribes and Pharisees were; and though he bids men do that they heard those say, while they sat in the chair of Moses, yet he certainly meant no more than that they should be observant of the moral law when read to them out of the sacred book: yet neither does he tell them to do all these false teachers said; for he testifies in Matt. 15:6, that they had put such false glosses on the law, that, if followed, would endanger the salvation of their souls. ACC
12. And from thence he arose, and went away into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. The journey here is indicated in marked terms because it differs from any previously recorded, for it was the first time that Jesus ever entered a foreign or heathen country. Some commentators contend from the use of the word “borders” that Jesus did not cross over the boundary, but the point is not well taken, for Mark 7:31 shows that the journey led through Sidon. For the location of these cities. . . . Jesus withdrew to escape the opposition of his enemies and the mistaken movements of his friends. As he was not on a missionary tour, it was perfectly proper for him to enter heathen territory. FG
Lesson 40, The Daughter of a Phoenician Woman Healed, Matt. 15:21-31; Mark 7:24-30
1. After his encounter with the Scribes and Pharisees, where did Jesus go?
2. A woman comes to Jesus with a request. What did she request of Jesus?
3. Where was this lady from? Check both Matt. 15:22 and Mark 7:25-26.
4. What does the fact that she called Jesus “the son of David” indicate about her?
5. How did Jesus first respond to her and how did he explain himself?
6. What did the disciples urge Jesus to do?
7. Who were the “lost sheep of the house of Israel?”
8. Explain what he meant in Matt. 15:26.
9. How did she take what he said to her?
10. What kind of faith did the lady have?
11. Where did Jesus go next and what did he do there? (Matt. 15:29-30).
12. Who came to him there?
13. Those who came to him saw the ___________ _______________, the ______________ ________________, and ______________ _____________________, and the ____________ _________________ _____________: and they _________________ the God of Israel.
2. A Canaanitish woman, whose daughter had an unclean spirit, had in some way learned of Jesus’ power to heal, and very earnestly besought him to heal her daughter. GA
3. We are not told how she learned of his power, but from Mark 3:8 we learn that his fame had reached Tyre and Sidon long before this, and some from these cities were part of the multitudes that followed him in Galilee. Mark tells us that this woman was “a Greek, a Syrophoenician by race.” (Mark 7:26.) She was a descendant of the Canaanites, who were original inhabitants of that section. (Josh. 5:1; Judges 1:3033.) She was living under Greek government, and in the Syrophoenician country. GA
[Mark 7:26] - The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by race. The Macedonian conquest had diffused Greek civilization throughout western Asia till the word Greek among the Jews had become synonymous with Gentile. The term Canaanite was narrower and indicated an inhabitant of Canaan--that is, a non-Jewish inhabitant of Palestine. The term Syrophoenician was narrower still. It meant a Syrian in Phoenicia, and distinguished the Phoenicians from the other Syrians. Phoenicia was a narrow strip near the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea. It was some twenty-eight miles long with an average width of about one mile. Canaan means "lowland"; Phoenicia means "palmland." The Canaanites founded Sidon (Ge 10:19), and the Phoenicians were their descendants. HG
4. Her calling Jesus the “Son of David” indicates she knew something of the Jewish expectation of a Messiah; her perfect reserve and respect, throughout the whole interview, showed she understood the Jewish feelings for her people. GA
5. Answered not a Word. —- The suggestion of the disciples that Jesus send her away because “she crieth after us” strongly implies two things: 1. That they were then traveling on their way, and the wo man was following after them, earnestly repeating her cry for mercy; 2. that the disciples knew Jesus was seeking retirement and should dismiss her, lest her cries defeat his purpose by attracting more to him. Jesus’ not deigning to answer a word was a severe test on her faith, but God has often tested the faith of those most worthy of blessings. His silence also taught his disciples that rewards generally await those who make persistent efforts.
6. Send her away; for she crieth after us. The woman by her loud entreaties was drawing to Jesus the very attention which he sought to avoid. The disciples therefore counseled him to grant her request for his own sake--not for mercy or compassion, but merely to be rid of her.
Lesson 41, A Speech Impediment Healed and 4,000 Fed, Matt. 15:32-39; Mark 7:31-8:9
1. To what place did Jesus go next?
2. Where did Jesus go as he crossed the Sea of Galilee?
3. As Jesus came near the Sea of Galilee, near the border of Decapolis, who was brought to Jesus for healing?
4. How did Jesus heal this man?
5. What does Ephphatha mean? How was the word used?
6. What instructions did he give the man he healed?
7. What reaction did the people around him have?
8. Fill in the missing words: “And they were _________________ __________________ astonished, saying, He hath done all things well; he maketh even the _____________ to ___________________, and the _______________ to ____________________. (Mark 7:37).
9. How did Jesus show his compassion on the people?
10. How many loaves and fishes did he have this time?
11. How many people did he feed?
12. What shows they had more than enough?
Lesson 42, Meeting an “Adulterous Generation” Seeking a Sign, Matt. 15:39-16:12; Mark 8:10-26
1. What did the Pharisees and Sadducees ask of Jesus?
2. How did he answer them?
3. What did Jesus say would identify an “evil and adulterous” generation?
4. Did Jesus refuse to give them what they asked for? If not what kind of sign did he promise them?
5. What had the disciples forgotten to take with them after they crossed to the other side of the Sea?
6. (Fill in the missing word) - Jesus said, “Take heed and beware of the ____________________ of the Pharisees and Sadducees. What did he mean by this? (Matt. 16:12).
7. What miracle did Jesus remind his disciples of? What application did he intend for this to make?
8. What was Jesus asked to do to a blind man? (Mark 8:22).
9. Describe how Jesus restored his sight and how the blind man first saw.
10. Describe how the man’s vision returned to normal.
11. Where did Jesus send the man?
1. And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him seeking of him a sign from heaven. They rejected his miracles as signs of his Messiahship, the Pharisees holding that such signs could be wrought by Beelzebub. See Mark 3:22; Matt. 12:24; Luke 11:15. They therefore asked a sign from heaven such as only God could give, and such as he had accorded to Moses, Joshua, Samuel, and Elijah, or such as Joel foretold (Joel 2:31).
[Trying him.] Testing the strength of his miraculous power. FG
2. There shall no sign be given unto this generation--literally, “If there shall be given to this generation a sign”; a Jewish way of expressing a solemn and peremptory determination to the contrary (compare Heb. 4:5; Psa 95:11, Margin). “A generation incapable of appreciating such demonstrations shall not be gratified with them.” In Matt. 16:4 He added, “but the sign of the prophet Jonas.” JFB
No sign be given. That is, no such sign as they asked--to wit, a sign from heaven. He said a sign should be given, the same as was furnished by Jonas, Matt. 16:1. But this was not what they asked, nor would it be given because they asked it. AB
3. [Wicked and adulterous generation] The Jewish people are represented in the Sacred Writings as married to the Most High; but, like a disloyal wife, forsaking their true husband, and uniting themselves to Satan and sin. Seeketh after a sign, shmeion epizhtei, seeketh sign upon sign, or, still another sign. Our blessed Lord had already wrought miracles sufficient to demonstrate both his Divine mission and his divinity; only one was farther necessary to take away the scandal of his cross and death, to fulfill the Scriptures, and to establish the Christian religion; and that was, his resurrection from the dead, which, he here states, was typified in the case of Jonah. ACC
4. See help on number 2 above. The greatest of all “signs” is the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.
5. This is the one miracle that all the writers record. (See Matt. 14:13-21; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-14.) It is well to study what each writer says, for neither writer gives all the details. The multitude had rushed out to this place without giving any thought to the matter of food for the day; they were so carried away with the excitement of the hour that they gave no thought to their own needs. As it drew toward the close of the day, the matter of food became of interest. Putting together what all the writers say, the conversation between Jesus and his disciples must have been about as follows: Jesus said to Philip, “Whence are we to buy bread, that these may eat?” Philip answered, “Two hundred shillings’ worth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one may take a little.” He answered, “Give ye them to eat.” The other disciples said, “Shall we go and buy two hundred shillings’ worth of bread, and give them to eat?” (The way this definite amount of money was mentioned shows rather clearly that this was the amount of money Jesus and the disciples had on hand at the time, but that amount of money would not buy enough bread that each one might have a little,) GA
Lesson 43, “I Will Build My Church,” Matt. 16:13-20; Mark 8:27-30; Luke 9:18-21
1. What was Jesus doing when he asked his disciples who the multitudes said he was? (Luke 9:18).
2. What question did Jesus put before his disciples? Where was he when this took place?
3. What answers did he get in return? (Think of reasons why people may have thought of Jesus as they did.)
4. What does the term “Christ” mean?
5. From what source was Peter’s correct answer revealed?
6. When would the apostles have heard from heaven that Jesus was truly the Christ, the son of God?
7. What did he promise to build?
8. On what was he to build it? (Does this mean Peter was to be the foundation of the church?) (Read 1 Cor. 3:10-11).
9. What authority did he give his apostles?
10. What do you think is the import of the fact that Jesus “charged” his disciples to not tell anyone he was the Christ?
11. When was this promise fulfilled?
12. Does the singular word “church” indicate the purpose of Jesus for his people? If so, how?
Lesson 44, Jesus’ Prophecy of His Suffering, Matt. 16:21-28; Mark 8:31-39; Luke 9:22-27
The Parable Of The Sower
The parable of the sower is true to nature in every detail. As people lived in towns and cities, the farmer literally went forth to sow. Jesus did not recite the facts of the parable for the purpose of teaching his hearers anything about farming; they were acquainted with all the facts he stated. Before explaining the meaning of the parable, he told the disciples why he spoke in parables. To have taught the multitudes in plain language the lessons he taught in these parables would have stirred up more opposition from the Pharisees, for their ideas of the kingdom-to-be resembled nothing that was set forth in these parables. Their hearts were hardened against such teaching, so materialistic were they. As Jesus himself explained the parable in verses 18-23, it is best to consider the facts of the parable and the explanation as we proceed.
The Seed.—The seed in the parable represents the word of God. “The sower soweth the word.” (Mark.) “The seed is the word of God.” (Luke.) Just as the germ of vegetable life is in the seed, so is the germ of spiritual life in the word, the seed of the kingdom. The Sower.—The sower in the parable represents the one who preaches the word. Primarily Jesus is the sower, but all who teach and preach the word are sowers.
The Soil.—The soil represents human hearts. Jesus makes this truth very clear in his explanation of the parable. There are various conditions of human hearts just as there are various conditions of soil.
The Wayside Soil.—Beaten paths ran along beside the grainfields. In broadcasting grain some would fall in these paths. The explanation: “When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and under-standeth it not, then cometh the evil one, and snatcheth away that which hath been sown in his heart.” Luke's report says that the devil takes away the word out of the heart, that they may not believe and be saved.” The devil knows that there is no chance then for them to believe. These wayside hearts have been so abused by allowing every sort of idea, notion, and whim to run over them, that no serious impression can be made upon them. Perhaps these are they who boast of having open minds. Some people have an open mind like an open road over which everything is allowed to pass and on which nothing stays!
The Stony Ground.—Shallow soil on an underlying rock will soon warm up and cause the seed to come up and grow till dry weather and the hot sun kills it. This condition of soil represents the emotional person, who, having heard the word, accepts it with joy; but lacking in stability of purpose, “when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, straightway he stumbleth.” The soil is too shallow.
The Thorny Ground.—There was nothing wrong with this soil, excepting that it had not been properly cleared of thorns and weeds. These noxious growths represent the cares of the world, the deceitfulness of riches, the pleasures of life, and the lust of other things. Other things, as well as evil passions, may choke out the word. Some people allow the cares of life to so weigh them down as to crush out the word; the cares of life include all the problems of living, even moral and religious matters. Some people become so absorbed in affairs of the church that they forget that God has anything to do with it! To prevent all these things we need constantly to study the word and to meditate on divine things.
The Good Ground.—The good ground yielded fruit—thirty, sixty, and a hundredfold. There are two main kinds of soil represented in the parable, namely, the nonproductive and the productive. Each kind has three grades, six in all. “And he that was sown upon the good ground, this is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it.” Such a one bears fruit. To understand the word means more than just to know what it takes to make a Christian—to know this and to obey it puts the person where he can bear fruit. The stony and the thorny ground hearers did that—each produced plants in the kingdom, but neither bore fruit. To understand the word is to comprehend what it really means to be a Christian, to know our duties and responsibilities, together with the advantages and rewards of the Christian life. The one who is fully persuaded as to what Christianity is and what it means to him will live the Christian life and bear fruit. The trouble is so many professed Christians have such little conception as to what it is all about. – R.L. Whiteside, Annual Lesson Commentary, Gospel Advocate, pp. 391-292, Dec. 17, 1939