Book 4

Lesson 23 – A Tax Gather Called – Matt. 9:9-17;
Mark 2:13-11; Luke 5:27, 28

Lesson 24 – A Feast in Jerusalem – and a Lame Man Healed – John 5:1-47

Lesson 25 – Jesus and Criticism Concerning the Sabbath – Matt. 12:1-14; Mark 2:23-3:6; Luke 6:1-11

Lesson 26 – A Centurion and His Servant and a Widow’s Son – Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-17

Lesson 27, A Sinful Woman anoints Jesus’ Feet, and Two Debtors, Luke 7:36-50

Lesson 28, First Group of Parables, Matthew 13:1-53; Mark 4:1-34; Luke 8:4-18



Lesson 23 – A Tax Gather Called – Matt. 9:9-17; Mark 2:13-11; Luke 5:27, 28

  1. Whom did Jesus meet sitting at a place of toll?
  2. What occupation does Luke say he had and what name does Luke use for him?
  3. Whose son was he? Did this man have other sons? If so who were they? (Matt. 10:3). (See help).
  4. According to Luke, what did Matthew do? Discuss Luke’s use of “forsook.”
  5. What did Matthew do for Jesus? Who are specially mentioned as being there?
  6. What was the reaction of the Scribes and Pharisees to this?
  7. Why would Scribes and Pharisees think Jesus was wrong for eating with those who came to him?
  8. How did Jesus answer them?
  9. Whom did Jesus say he came to call?
  10. When John the Baptist’s disciples came to Jesus what question was on their mind?
  11. What illustration did Jesus use to answer their question? What is the most likely explanation of his use of the event?
  12. To what event did he refer by saying the days would come when the bridegroom would be taken from them?
  13. When he spoke of putting a piece of new material as a patch for an old garment, what application should be made of it?

Help With Answers to Lesson 23

1.                Matthew -- An apostle and evangelist, was son of Alpheus, a Galilean by birth, a Jew by religion, and a publican by profession, Mt 9:9; 10:3; Lu 6:15. The other evangelists call him only LEVI, which was his Hebrew name, Mr 2:14; Lu 5:27; but he always calls himself Matthew, which was probably his name as a publican, or officer for gathering taxes. He does not dissemble his former profession; thus exalting the grace of Christ which raised him to the apostleship. His ordinary abode was at Capernaum, and his office probably on the main road, near the Sea of Tiberias; here, in the midst of his business, he was called by Jesus to follow him, Mt 9:9; Mr 2:14. It is probable that he had a previous knowledge of the miracles and doctrine of Christ. – ATSD

2.                Tax Collector - An officer of the revenue, employed in collecting taxes. Among the Romans there were two sorts of tax-gatherers; some were general receivers, who in each province had deputies; they collected the revenues of the empire, and accounted to the emperor. These were men of great consideration in the government; and Cicero says that among these were the flower of the Roman knights, the ornaments of the city, and the strength of the commonwealth. But the deputies, the under-collectors, the publicans of the lower order, were looked upon as so many thieves and pickpockets. Theocritus being asked which was the cruelest of all beasts, answered, "Among the beasts of the wilderness, the bear and the lion; among the beasts of the city, the publican and the parasite." Among the Jews, the name and profession of a publican were especially odious. They could not, without the utmost reluctance, see publicans exacting tributes and impositions laid on them by foreigners, the Romans. The Galileans, or Herodians, especially, submitted to this with the greatest impatience, and thought it even unlawful, De 17:15. Those of their own nation who undertook this office they looked upon as heathen, Mt 18:17. It is even said that they would not allow them to enter the temple or the synagogues, to engage in the public prayers or offices of judicature, or to give testimony in a court of justice. ATSD

3.                It will be observed that Matthew, in his account of his call, does not make himself prominent. All the Evangelists keep themselves in the background. Because Mark and Luke give us the name Levi, it has been thought by some that they describe the call of a different person from the one mentioned by Matthew--an opinion which seems to have started with Origen. But the difference in name is not an important divergence, for many in that day had two names; as, for example, Lebbaeus, who was called Thaddaeus; Silas, who was called Sylvanus; John, who was called Mark; etc. Moreover, it was then common to change the name; as is shown by the cases of Simon, who became Peter; Joseph, who became Barnabas; Saul, who became Paul, etc. FG

4.                And he left all] katalipwn-completely abandoning his office, and every thing connected with it. He who wishes to preach the Gospel, like the disciples of Christ, must have no earthly entanglement. If he have, his whole labour will be marred by it. The concerns of his own soul, and those of the multitudes to whom he preaches, are sufficient to engross all his attention, and to employ all his powers.

5.                A great feast - dochn megalhn, A splendid entertainment. The word refers more properly to the number of the guests, and the manner in which they were received, than to the quality or quantity of the fare. A great number of his friends and acquaintance was collected on the occasion, that they might be convinced of the propriety of the change he had made, when they had the opportunity of seeing and hearing his heavenly teacher. ACC -
This feast was made expressly for our Lord, and was attended by many publicans, probably men of wicked character; and it is not improbable that Matthew got them together for the purpose of bringing them into contact with our Lord to do them good. Our Saviour did not refuse to go, and to go, too, at the risk of being accused of being a gluttonous man and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners, Mt 11:19. But his motives were pure. In the thing itself there was no harm. It afforded an opportunity of doing good, and we have no reason to doubt that the opportunity was improved by the Lord Jesus. – AB

6.                Murmured (egogguzon). Imperfect active. Picturesque onomatopoetic word that sounds like its meaning. A late word used of the cooing of doves. It is like the buzzing of bees, like tonthorruzô of literary Greek. They were not invited to this feast and would not have come if they had been. But, not being invited, they hang on the outside and criticize the disciples of Jesus for being there. The crowd was so large that the feast may have been served out in the open court at Levi's house, a sort of reclining garden party. RWP

7.                The Pharisees having a perfect malice to Christ, did not only seek all means to carp at him, but to bring him under a popular odium: this seemed a fair opportunity. The publicans being an order of persons who both for their employment, and perhaps also their ill management of it, were abominated by the Jews, and reckoned amongst the more notorious sort of sinners; they therefore come to his disciples clamouring against their Master, that he kept communion with publicans and sinners. MPC

8.                They that be whole need not a physician] A common proverb, which none could either misunderstand or misapply. Of it the reader may make the following use:-
1. Jesus Christ represents himself here as the sovereign Physician of souls. 2. That all stand in need of his healing power. 3. That men must acknowledge their spiritual maladies, and the need they have of his mercy, in order to be healed by him. 4. That it is the most inveterate and dangerous disease the soul can be afflicted with to imagine itself whole, when the sting of death, which is sin, has pierced it through in every part, infusing its poison every where. – ACC

9.                And when Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners. Being charged with recklessly consorting with sinners, it was necessary for Jesus to vindicate himself, else his influence would be damaged; hence he presents three arguments: 1. His office being analogous to that of a physician, required him to visit the sin-sick. 2. God himself commended such an act of mercy, and preferred it to sacrifice; see TFG for Mt 9:13. 3. As he came to call sinners to repentance, he must therefore go to the sinners. These arguments do not justify us in keeping company with bad people for any other purpose than to do them good--that is, as their soul's physician. When he used the word "righteous," Jesus did not mean to admit that any were so righteous as to need no Saviour; he merely quoted the Pharisees at the value which was set upon themselves. FG

10.            Probably Levi's feast happened on one of the weekly fast-days (second and fifth days of the week for the stricter Jews). So there was a clash of standpoints. The disciples of John sided with the Pharisees in the Jewish ceremonial ritualistic observances. John was still a prisoner in Machaerus. John was more of an ascetic than Jesus (Mt 18:1; Lu 7:33-35), but neither one pleased all the popular critics. These learners (mathtai) or disciples of John had missed the spirit of their leader when they here lined up with the Pharisees against Jesus. But there was no real congeniality between the formalism of the Pharisees and the asceticism of John the Baptist. The Pharisees hated John who had denounced them as broods of vipers. Here the disciples of John and the disciples of the Pharisees (oi( maqhtai\ Iwa/nnou kai oi Farisaioi) join in criticizing Jesus and his disciples. Later we shall see Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians, who bitterly detested each other, making common cause against Jesus Christ. So today we find various hostile groups combining against our Lord and Saviour. RWP

11.            Can the sons of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? The bridegroom's friends were called "sons of the bride-chamber." They went with the bridegroom to the bride's house, and escorted her to her new home. Arriving at the bridegroom's house, a feast usually lasting seven days ensued (Mt 22:4; Lu 14:8; Joh 2:8,9). Mourning and fasting would therefore ill befit such an occasion. FG

12.            But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. Jesus here foretells the removal of his visible presence from his disciples by his ascension. His words predict but do not command a fast. He prescribed no stated fasts, and the apostolic church kept none. History shows that prescribed fasts become formal and tend to Phariseeism. FG

13.             No man seweth a piece of undressed cloth on an old garment, etc. Jesus justifies the conduct of his disciples by an appeal to the principles of the new dispensation, by which they were governed. The disciples of John looked upon Jesus as a reformer of Judaism, but he corrects their false impressions. To tear the new dispensation to pieces to renovate or embellish the old would be to injure the new and to destroy the old. By the process of fulling or dressing, new cloth was cleansed and shrunk so as to become more compact. The new cloth, therefore, had in it, so to speak, a life-element, and in its movement while shrinking it would tear the weaker fiber of the old cloth to which it was sewed, and thus enlarge the rent. The new dispensation could have rites and forms of its own, but could not conform to the rites of the Pharisees. If the conduct of his disciples made made a rent in the rabbinical traditions with regard to fasting, Jesus could not so modify the conduct of his disciples as to patch the rent without injuring the moral sense of his disciples, and without making Phariseeism a more meaningless hypocrisy than ever. FG


Lesson 24 – A Feast in Jerusalem – and a Lame Man Healed – John 5:1-47

  1. What feast is associated with Jesus going back to Jerusalem? (See Help)
  2. What pool of water was in Jerusalem by the “sheep gate?”
  3. Why did afflicted people gather there?
  4. What caused the water to be “troubled” and what did that mean for the afflicted people?
  5. What did Jesus do for a man who could not enter the pool?
  6. On what day did this happen and why did the Jews rebuke the man who carried his bed?
  7. How did they learn that Jesus healed the man?
  8. What caused the Jews to want to kill Jesus?
  9. Whose work did Jesus claim he was doing?

10.       What did Jesus claim the Father had committed to himself?

11.       What did Jesus say about the resurrection of both the good and the bad?

12.       How did Jesus involve his cousin, John the Baptist?

13.       To what did Jesus appeal as they that “testify of me?”

14.       How was it that Moses could accuse these Jews of Jesus’ day?

Help With Answers to Lesson 24

1.                After these things there was a feast of the Jews. Though every feast in the Jewish calendar has found some one to advocate its claim to be this unnamed feast, yet the vast majority of commentators choose either the feast of Purim, which came in March, or the Passover, which came in April. Older commentators pretty unanimously regarded it as the Passover, while the later school favor the feast of Purim. Joh 4:35 locates Jesus in Samaria in December, and Joh 6:4 finds him on the shores of Galilee just before a Passover. If, then, this was the feast of Purim, the Passover of Joh 6:4 was the second in Jesus' ministry, and that ministry lasted but two years and a fraction. But if the feast here mentioned was a Passover, then the one at Joh 6:4 would be the third Passover, and the ministry of Jesus lasted three years and a fraction. Since, then, the length of Jesus' ministry is largely to be determined by what the feast was, it becomes important for us to fix the feast, if possible. That it was not Purim the following arguments may be urged. 1. Purim was not a Mosaic feast, but one established by human laws; hence Jesus would not be likely to observe it. True, we find him at the feast of Dedication, which was also of human origin, but he did not "go up" to attend it; he appears to have attended because he was already in Jerusalem (Joh 10:22). 2. Here the pregnant juxtaposition of "feast" and "went up" indicates that Jesus was drawn to Jerusalem by this feast, but Purim was celebrated by the Jews everywhere, and did not require that any one should go to Jerusalem, as did the three great festivals--Passover, Pentecost and Tabernacles. 3. It was kept in a boisterous, riotous manner, and was therefore not such a feast as Jesus would honor. 4. It came early in the year, when the weather was too rigorous and inclement for sick people to frequent porticos. 5. It did not include a Sabbath Day. 6. As Purim was just a month before the Passover, Jesus would hardly have returned to Galilee before the Passover (Joh 6:4) unless he intended to miss the Passover, which he would hardly do for the sake of attending Purim in Jerusalem. Those contending that it was not the Passover, present several arguments, which we note and answer as follows: 1. Since John gives the name of other Passovers, he would have named this also, had it been one. But the conclusion is inferential, and not logical; and the answer is to be twofold: first, perhaps John did give the name by prefixing the article to it, and calling it "the feast," for being the oldest--older than the law and the Sabbath--and most important of all feasts, it was rightly called by pre-eminence "the feast." Since the Sinaitic manuscript gives the article, and calls it "the feast," the manuscript authority for and against this reading is pretty evenly balanced. Second, if John did not name it, there is probably this reason for his silence. Where he names the feast elsewhere it is thought that the incidents narrated take color from, or have some references to, the particular festal occasion which is named; but here there is no such local color, and failure to name the feast prevents mistaken attempts to find such local color. 2. Again it is objected that if this is a different Passover from Joh 6:4, then John skips a year in the life of Jesus. He probably does so skip, and this is not strange when the supplemental nature of his Gospel is considered. In favor of its being the Passover we submit two points: 1. Daniel seems to forecast the ministry of the Messiah as lasting one-half of a week of years (Da 9:27). 2. It fits better in the chronological arrangement, for in the next scene we find the disciples plucking grain, and the Sabbath question is still at full heat. But the harvest season opens with the Passover. FG

2.                A pool. This word may either mean a small lake or pond in which one can swim, or a place for fish, or any waters collected for bathing or washing.
 Hebrew tongue. Hebrew language. The language then spoken, which did not differ essentially from the ancient Hebrew.
 Bethesda. The house of mercy. It was so called on account of its strong healing properties--the property of restoring health to the sick and infirm. AB

3.                 In these lay a great multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, withered. The rest of Joh 5:3 and all of Joh 5:4, as given in the King James Version, were probably added as a marginal explanatory gloss early in the second century, and from thence gradually became incorporated in the text. John's failure to mention that the pool was thought to have medicinal qualities tempted transcribers to add a few marginal words in the nature of comments. FG

4.                For an angel went down &c. We need not suppose that an angel visibly descended from heaven; but the miraculous virtue of the water was ascribed to the power of some angel employed by God for that purpose. Bp. Mann.
According to the Jewish way of speaking, every thing that had a Divine effect was said to be done by means of ministering spirits or angels, 2Ki 19:35; Mt 28:2. Bp. Pearce.
We are not informed how long before our Saviour's time this miraculous virtue had belonged to the pool, nor how long afterward it continued; whether it ceased at the time of our Saviour, or continued some time after, or even to the destruction of Jerusalem. As we have no information whatever on this subject, it is useless to enquire into it. Dr. Lightfoot. BFB

5.                Rise, take up thy bed, and walk.] Jesus speaks here as God. He speaks in no name but his own, and with an authority which belongs to God alone. And what is the consequence? The man became whole immediately; and this sudden restoration to health and strength was an incontestable proof of the omnipotence of Christ. It has been remarked, that our Lord, after having performed a miracle, was accustomed to connect some circumstance with it, which attested its truth. After the miracle of the five loaves, he ordered the fragments to be collected, which were more in quantity than the loaves themselves, though several thousands had been fed. When he changed the water into wine, he ordered some to be taken first to the steward of the feast, that he might taste and bear testimony to its genuineness and excellency. When he cured the lepers, he commanded them to show themselves to the priests, whose business it was to judge of the cure. So here, he judged it necessary, after having cured this infirm man, to order him not only to arise, but to take up his bed, and walk, which sufficiently attested the miracle which he had wrought. God's work is ever known by its excellence and good effects. ACC

6.                It is not lawful to carry thy bed -- a glorious testimony to the cure, as instantaneous and complete, from the lips of the most prejudiced! (And what a contrast does it, as all our Lord's miracles, present to the bungling miracles of the Church of Rome!) In ordinary circumstances, the rulers had the law on their side (Ne 13:15; Jer 17:21). But when the man referred them to "Him that had made him whole" (Joh 5:11) as his authority, the argument was resistless. Yet they ingeniously parried the thrust, asking him, not who had "made him whole"--that would have condemned themselves and defeated their purpose--but who had bidden him "take up his bed and walk," in other words, who had dared to order a breach of the sabbath? It is time we were looking after Him--thus hoping to shake the man's faith in his Healer. – JFB

7.                Who is the man? (tis estin ho anthropo$). Contemptuous expression, "Who is the fellow?" They ask about the command to violate the Sabbath, not about the healing. RWP

8.                God was his Father--literally, "His own [or peculiar] Father," (as in Ro 8:32). The addition is their own, but a very proper one. making himself equal with God -- rightly gathering this to be His meaning, not from the mere words "My Father," but from His claim of right to act as His Father did in the like high sphere, and by the same law of ceaseless activity in that sphere. And as, instead of instantly disclaiming any such meaning--as He must have done if it was false--He positively sets His seal to it in the following verses, merely explaining how consistent such claim was with the prerogatives of His Father, it is beyond all doubt that we have here an assumption of peculiar personal Sonship, or participation in the Father's essential nature. JFB

9.               Worketh hitherto; worketh without intermission in upholding and quickening creation, ever since the day when he finished it. I work; he claimed to be the Son of God in such a sense that he had the power and right of working as God works. This they thought was blasphemy; and had he been only a man, it would have been. But as he was God as well as man, chap Joh 1:1, it was speaking and acting according to truth. The question was not whether Jesus possessed power to do those things, but it was whether he exercised his power agreeable to the will of the Father, or in opposition to it; and he answered them accordingly. FBN

10.           For neither doth the Father judge any man, but he hath given all judgment unto the Son. That is to say, the Father does not act in judgment without the Son, nor the Son without the Father, for in no work is either isolated from the other. Resurrection is nearly always associated with judgment, and in this instance it is in reviving that the judgment is manifested or executed. (See Joh 5:29 also.) Note that judgment begins in this world (Joh 9:39). FG

11.            Resurrection of life -- that is, to life everlasting (Mt 25:46). Of damnation--It would have been harsh to say "the resurrection of death," though that is meant, for sinners rise from death to death [BENGEL]. The resurrection of both classes is an exercise of sovereign authority; but in the one case it is an act of grace, in the other of justice. (Compare Da 12:2, from which the language is taken). How awfully grand are these unfoldings of His dignity and authority from the mouth of Christ Himself! And they are all in the third person; in what follows He resumes the first person. JFB

12.            He bare witness, &c. This testimony of John ought to have satisfied them. John was an eminent man; many of the Pharisees believed on him; he was candid, unambitious, sincere, and his evidence was impartial. On this Jesus might have rested the proof that he was the Messiah, but he was willing, also, to adduce evidence of a higher order.

13.            Search the Scriptures; the words may be read either imperatively (as our translation readeth them) or indicatively, You do search the Scriptures; that is, of the Old Testament, for the books of the New Testament were not at that time written; but as they had the books of the Old Testament, so they made use of them: Moses was read in the synagogues every sabbath day; and they (the Pharisees especially) were very well versed both in the law and the prophets.
For in them ye think ye have eternal life; they did agree that the way of salvation and everlasting life was revealed unto them in the Holy Scriptures; nay, they did judge, that eternal life was to be obtained by their observation of the law.
They are they which testify of me: they (saith our Saviour) are my principal testimony; he doth not only say, they testify, but they are they which testify. No writings but those testify of me; I principally appeal to them to give you an account of me.

14.            For if ye believed Moses, ye would believe me; for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words? In these verses Jesus explicitly endorses the Mosaic authorship and authenticity of the Pentateuch, and sets forth one purpose for which Moses wrote it. Jesus was the essential subject of the law and prophets (Lu 24:27,44-46; Ro 16:25,26). The emphasis is on "his writings" and "my words." They professed to reverence Moses and to receive his writings, while they openly despised Jesus and repudiated his words as fast as he spoke them. The phrase "wrote concerning me" is not to be restricted to De 18:15-18. Moses wrote symbolically of Jesus through his entire work, as Bengel tersely puts it, "Everywhere!" The Epistle to the Hebrews is a partial elaboration of the Christology of Moses. But there is doubtless a depth of meaning in the Pentateuch which has never yet been fully fathomed, for there is a fullness in Scripture greatly exceeding the popular conception. Moreover, the Old and New Testaments are so linked together that to reject one is eventually to reject the other, or to read it with veiled eyes (2Co 3:15).


Lesson 25 – Jesus and Criticism Concerning the Sabbath – Matt. 12:1-14; Mark 2:23-3:6; Luke 6:1-11

1.    What is the setting of the story, and why is it significant?

2.    What did the disciples do that outraged the Pharisees?

3.    Why did the Pharisees confront Jesus about the actions of His disciples?

4.    According to Jesus, why were the disciples of both David and Jesus justified in breaking the Sabbath?

5.    Why did Jesus say He was “Lord even of the Sabbath”?

6.    Why were some of the Pharisees watching Jesus so closely?

7.    What was notable about the way Jesus performed this miracle?

8.    What significance do you see in the fact that the Pharisees were willing to plot with their enemies, the Herodians, to kill Jesus?

9.    What do Jesus’ actions in this story tell you about His concerns?

Help With Answers to Lesson 25

1.                The corn fields. The fields sown with grain, wheat, or barley. The word corn, in the Bible, refers only to grain of that kind, and never to maize or Indian corn. AB

2.                To pluck the ears of corn. They were hungry, (Matthew.) They therefore gathered the wheat, or barley, as they walked, and rubbed it in their hands to shell it, and thus to satisfy their appetite. Though our Lord was with them, and though he had all things at his control, yet he suffered them to resort to this method to supply their wants. When Jesus, thus with his disciples, suffered them to be poor, we may learn that poverty is not disgraceful; that God often suffers it for the good of his people; and that he will take care, in some way, that their wants shall be supplied. It was lawful for them thus to supply their wants. Though the property belonged to another, yet the law of Moses allowed the poor to satisfy theft wants when hungry. AB

3.                The Pharisees did not object to the act of taking the grain. Such plucking of the grain was allowed by the law (De 23:25) and is still practiced by hungry travelers in Palestine, which is, and has always been, an unfenced land, the roads, or rather narrow paths, of which lead through the grainfields, so that the grain is in easy reach of the passer-by. The Pharisees objected to the plucking of grain because they considered it a kind of reaping, and therefore working on the sabbath day. The scene shows the sinlessness of Jesus in strong light. Every slightest act of his was submitted to a microscopic scrutiny. FG

4.                What David did. The Pharisees could not resist the force of this illustration. One of the greatest heroes and saints in Israel had been turned against them. David's hunger, like that of the disciples, was a sufficient excuse. See 1 Sam. 21:6. TC

5.                Jesus here refers to the incident recorded at 1 Sam. 21:1-6. Ahimelech and Abiathar have been confused by transcribers. It should read Ahimelech. However, we are not referred to the actions of Abiathar, but to those of David. He went with his followers to the tabernacle at Nob near Jerusalem, and being hungry, asked bread of the priests. There was no bread at hand save the showbread. This bread was called showbread because it was "set out" or "exhibited" before Jehovah. It consisted of twelve loaves, which were baked upon the sabbath, and were placed, hot, in two rows upon the showbread table every sabbath day. The twelve old loaves which were then removed were to be eaten by the priests and no one else (Le 24:5-9). It was these twelve old loaves which were given to David (1Sa 21:6). Since the showbread was baked on the sabbath, the law itself ordered work on that day. The vast majority of commentators look upon this passage as teaching that necessity abrogates what they are pleased to call the ceremonial laws of God. Disregarding the so-called ceremonial laws of God is a very dangerous business, as is witnessed by the case of Uzzah (2 Sam. 6:6,7), and Uzziah (2 Chron. 26:16-23). Christ never did it, and strenuously warned those who followed the example of the scribes and Pharisees in teaching such a doctrine (Mt 5:17-20). The law of necessity was not urged by him as a justifiable excuse for making bread during the forty days' fast of the temptation. Life is not higher than law. "All that a man hath will he give for his life," is Satan's doctrine, not Christ's (Job 2:4).

6.                And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day; that they might accuse him. They sought to accuse him before the local judges or officers of the synagogue; that is, before a body of which they themselves were members. Jesus gave them abundant opportunity for such accusation, for we have seven recorded instances of cures on the sabbath day; namely: Mr 1:21,29; Joh 5:9; 9:14; Lu 13:14; 14:2, and this case.

7.                He saith unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. As Jesus here healed without any word or action of healing, merely ordering the man to stretch forth his hand, the Pharisees could find no legal ground for accusation. God can not be tried by man, because his ways are hidden from the senses of man save as he chooses to reveal them. FG
Stretch forth thine hand.] The bare command of God is a sufficient reason of obedience. This man might have reasoned thus: "Lord, my hand is withered; how then can I stretch it out? Make it whole first, and afterwards I will do as thou commandest." This may appear reasonable, but in his case it would have been foolishness. At the command of the Lord he made the effort, and in making it the cure was effected! Faith disregards apparent impossibilities, where there is a command and promise of God. The effort to believe is, often, that faith by which the soul is healed. ACC

8.                And the Pharisees went out, and straightway with the Herodians took counsel against him, how they might destroy him. Here the three Synoptists first tell of the counsel to put Jesus to death, and we should note that, like John, they described the anger of the Jewish rulers as arising because of this Sabbath question. Their real motive was envious hatred, but their pretext was a zeal for the law. That it was not genuine zeal for the law is shown by the fact that they consulted with the Herodians or the adherents of Herod Antipas, as they also did afterwards (Mt 22:16; Mr 12:13). They needed the secular power of the Herodians to secure the death of Jesus. Its efficiency for such ends had just been shown in the imprisonment of John the Baptist. But the Herodians were no friends of the Jewish law; in fact, they were real perverters of that law which Jesus merely correctly interpreted. This party and its predecessors had flatteringly tried to make a Messiah of Herod the Great, and had been friends of Rome and patrons of Gentile influence. They favored the erection of temples for idolatrous ends, and pagan theaters and games, and Gentile customs generally. Unlike Jesus, the Pharisees grew angry and sinned, for it was against their conscience to consort with the Herodians. FG

9.                Observe here, 1. The Pharisees' sinful and graceless disposition, and that was hardness of heart. The heart of man is naturally hard, and full of obstinacy and enmity against Christ: but there is an acquired hardness, which continuance in sin occasions; the Pharisees laboured under both.
Observe, 2. A double affection which this hardness of heart found in the Pharisees did stir up in Christ: namely, anger and indignation, grief and commiseration: He was grieved for the hardness of their hearts.
Learn hence,
1. That human passions are not sinful, and that the christian religion doth not destroy natural affections.
2. That anger at sin, either in ourselves or others, if kept within its due bounds, is not only lawful but commendable. This passion of anger was found in him, in whom was no sin.
3. That our anger against sin ought to be accompanied with grief and compassion towards sinners. We should pour out our tears of compassion, when men pour forth their abominations.
4. That all sins, hardness of heart and unbelief are most grievous and offensive, nost displeasing and provoking to Jesus Christ: He looked about with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts.
Learn hence, That Christ's having absolute power over all bodily diseases and infirmities to cure them miraculously without means, only by a word speaking, is one argument that proves him to be truly and really God. WBNT



Lesson 26 – A Centurion and His Servant and a Widow’s Son – Matt. 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-17

1.           This is the first place in the New Testament where a Centurion is mentioned. What was a centurion?

2.           What brought the centurion and Jesus together?

3.           What had this centurion done for the Jews?

4.           What compliment did Jesus give to the centurion? What did the Lord say about his faith?

5.           What does sitting down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven mean?

6.           At what time was the centurion’s servant made well?

7.           One his way from Capernaum, what did Jesus meet?

8.           Who was dead? What indicates the reason Jesus had compassion on the mother?

9.           What did Jesus say to the corpse?

10.       Thought question: since the spirit or life of man departs from the body at death, where would the spirit of the man be?

11.       How could Jesus communicate with the spirit of the dead man?

Help With Answers to Lesson 26

1.           A Roman officer commanding a hundred soldiers; similar to "captain" in modern times. Several centurions are mentioned with honor in the New Testament, Mr 15:39; Lu 7:1-10; and the first fruits to Christ from the Gentiles was the generous and devout Cornelius, Ac 10:1-48. ATSD

2.           Lord, my servant lieth in the house sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. Because palsy is not usually accompanied with suffering, some think that in this case it was combined with tetanus or lockjaw, a combination not infrequent in hot climates. But Sir R. Bennet, M.D., speaks thus: "In this instance we have probably a case of progressive paralysis, attended by muscular spasms, and involving the respiratory movements, where death is manifestly imminent and inevitable. In such a case there would be symptoms indicative of great distress, as well as immediate danger to life." FG

3.           For he loveth our nation, and himself built us our synagogue. The ruins of Capernaum show the ruins of a synagogue. It was a beautiful structure, built of white limestone, shows by its architectural features that it was built in the time of the Herods, and there is little doubt that it is the one which this pious Gentile erected, and in which Jesus taught and healed.

4.           And when Jesus heard it, he marvelled. . . . I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. To some it seems strange that Jesus could marvel, but he had all the actual feelings of a man. However, we should note that Jesus is never said to have marveled but twice. In this case it was because of belief, and in the other (Mr 6:6), it was because of unbelief. Those who think that Jesus gave or gives faith should note this fact. If Jesus had given the centurion faith, he could not have been surprised to find that he had it; and, if he failed to bestow it upon the people of Nazareth, it would have been inconsistent in him to express surprise at their lack of it. It would seem, however, irreconcilable with the character and affectionate nature of Christ, to bestow faith in such profusion upon this Gentile stranger, and withhold every spark of it from his near kinsmen and fellow-townsmen. Faith is no miraculous gift. Faith means no more nor less than belief; and a man believes the Scripture facts in the same manner and by the same processes that he believes any other facts. FG

5.           Sitting down with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is a metaphor taken of banqueters, for they that sit down together are fellows in the banquet. -- With Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob] In the closest communion with the most eminent followers of God. But if we desire to inherit the promises, we must be followers of them who through faith and patience enjoy them. Let us therefore imitate Abraham in his faith, Isaac in his obedience unto death, and Jacob in his hope and expectation of good things to come, amidst all the evils of this life, if we desire to reign with them. ACC

6.           Matt 8:13) - He was healed in that selfsame hour. This showed decisively the goodness and power of Jesus. No miracle could be more complete. There could be no imposition, or deception. AB

7.           When he drew near to the gate. No burial was allowed within the walls of a Jewish city. In this case the funeral procession had passed out through the city gate. Much people of the city. An evidence of the deep sympathy felt for the loss of her only son. TC

8.           Often love and pity are mentioned as the motives for Christ's miracles (Mt 14:14; 15:32, etc.). It is confined to the Synoptics in the N.T. and about Christ save in the parables by Christ. Weep not (me klai). RWP
Weep not. Jesus was moved to the deepest compassion by grief for bereavement. He wept with Mary and Martha because of the death of their brother Lazarus. TC

9.           I say unto thee, Arise. Here our Lord spake by that Divine power which He had over all things, animate and inanimate. Arise. This is the first time he spoke these words to the dead. It must have been to his disciples and the multitude a moment of suspense and wonder. PNTC

10.       Suggested passages: Eccl. 7:29; James 2:26; Luke 16:19-31

11.       See Matt. 30-32; Acts 20:39-42; John 8:56-58

Lesson 27, A Sinful Woman anoints Jesus’ Feet, and Two Debtors, Luke 7:36-50

1.          In whose house was Jesus invited to eat? What was the man’s name and religion?

2.          What do we know about the religious preference of this man?

3.          Tell what you can know about the woman who came to Jesus in this Pharisee’s house.

4.          What did she bring with her and what did she do with it?

5.          What could have been the reason she was weeping so much?

6.          What does “standing behind his feet” suggest as to the arrangement of those who were eating?

7.          How did Jesus respond to the thoughts of the Pharisee (verses 39-40)?

8.          Explain the parable Jesus used in his answer.

9.          How did Jesus use the woman in comparison to his host?

10.      Explain the words of Jesus, “to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little.”

11.      What right did Jesus have to tell the woman her sins were forgiven?

12.      What saved the woman and what did Jesus tell her to do?

Help with Answers to Lesson 27

1.          One of the Pharisees. His name was Simon, Lu 7:10. Nothing more is known of him. It is not improbable, however, from what follows (Lu 7:40-47), that he had been healed by the Saviour of some afflictive disease, and made this feast to show his gratitude.
 Sat down to meat. The original word here means only that he placed himself or reclined at the table. The notion of sitting at meals is taken from modern customs, and was not practised by the Jews. AB

2.          A numerous and dominant sect of the Jews, agreeing on some main points of doctrine and practice, but divided into different parties or schools on minor points; as for instance, the schools or followers of Hillel and Shammai, who were celebrated rabbins or teachers. The name is commonly derived from the Hebrew purash, to separate, as though they were distinguished form the rest of the nation by their superior wisdom and sanctity. They first appeared as a sect after the return of the Jews from captivity. In respect to their tenets, although they esteemed the written books of the old Testament as the sources of the Jewish religion, yet they also attributed great and equal authority to traditional precepts relating principally to external rites: as ablutions, fasting, long prayers, the distribution of alms, the avoiding of all intercourse with Gentiles and publicans, etc. See Mt 6:5; 9:11; 23:5; Mr 7:4; Lu 18:12. In superstitious and self-righteous formalism they strongly resembled the Romish church. They were rigid interpreters of the letter of the Mosaic law, but not infrequently violated the spirit of it by their traditional and philosophical interpretations. See Mt 5:31,43; 12:2; 19:3; 23:23. Their professed sanctity and close adherence to all the external forms of piety gave them great favor and influence with the common people, and especially among the female part of the community. They believed with the Stoics, that all things and events were controlled by fate yet not so absolutely as entirely to destroy the liberty of the human will. They considered the soul as immortal, and held the doctrine of a future resurrection of the body, Ac 23:8. It is also supposed by some that they admitted the doctrine of metempsychosis or the transmigration of souls; but no allusion is made to this in the New Testament, nor does Josephus assert it. In numerous cases Christ denounced the Pharisees for their pride and covetousness, their ostentation in prayers, alms, tithes, and facts, Mt 6:2,5; Lu 18:9, and their hypocrisy in employing the garb of religion to cover the profligacy of their dispositions and conduct; as Mt 23:1-39; Lu 16:14; Joh 7:48,49; 8:9. By his faithful reproofs he early incurred their hatred, Mt 12:14; they eagerly sought to destroy him, and his blood was upon them and their children. On the other hand, there appear to have been among them individuals of probity, and even of genuine piety; as in the case of Joseph of Arimathea, Nicodemus, the aged Simeon, etc., Mt 27:57; Lu 2:25; Joh 3:1. Saul of Tarsus was a Pharisee of the strictest sect, Ac 26:5; Ga 1:14. The essential features of their character are still common in Christian lands, and are no less odious to Christ than of old. ATSD

3.            And behold, a woman who was in the city, a sinner; and when she knew that he was sitting at meat in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster cruse of ointment. Because the definite article "the" is used before the word "city," Meyer says it was Capernaum, and because Nain is the last city mentioned, Wiesler says it was Nain, but it is not certain what city it was. Older commentators say it was Magdala, because they hold the unwarranted medieval tradition that the sinner was Mary Magdalene, that is, Mary of Magdala. No trustworthy source has ever been found for this tradition, and there are two good reasons for saying that this was not Mary Magdalene: 1. She is introduced soon after (Lu 8:2) as a new character and also as a woman of wealth and consequence. See also Mt 27:55. 2. Jesus had delivered her from the possession of seven demons. FG

4.          The cruse which she brought with her was called "an alabaster." Orientals are very fond of ointments and use them upon the face and hair with profusion. They were scented with sweet-smelling vegetable essence, especially that extracted from the myrtle. Originally the small vases, jars or broad-mouthed bottles, in which the ointment was stored, were carved from alabaster, a variety of gypsum, white, semi-transparent and costly. Afterwards other material was used, but the name "alabaster" was still applied to such cruses. That used by Mary of Bethany was probably the highest grade ointment in the highest-priced cruse (Joh 12:3). The context here leaves us free to suppose that both the cruse and the unguent were of a cheaper kind. FG

5.          Stood at his feet behind him] In taking their meals, the eastern people reclined on one side; the loins and knees being bent to make the more room, the feet of each person were turned outwards behind him. This is the meaning of standing BEHIND at his FEET.

6.          If he were a prophet. The word prophet here means, not one who predicts future events, but one who knows the hearts of men.  If Jesus had been sent from God as a prophet, he supposed that he would have known the character of the woman and would have rebuked her.
  Would have known, etc. Because Jesus did not rebuke her and drive her from his presence, he inferred that he could not be acquainted with her character.  The Pharisees considered it improper to hold communion with those who were notorious sinners.
  They judged our Saviour by their own rules, and supposed that he would act in the same way; and Simon therefore concluded that he did not know her character and could not be a prophet.  Jesus did not refuse the society of the guilty. He came to save the lost; and no person ever came to him so sure of finding a friend, as those who came conscious that they were deeply depraved, and mourning on account of their crimes. – AB

7.          Our Saviour treats his host civilly, but yet letteth him know, that he both knew his heart, and the heart of this poor woman, whom he had so uncharitably reflected upon. MP
  And Jesus answering said The Pharisee had only spoken within himself; but Jesus answers him. Thus it is that, when we speak to our hearts, we speak to God who knoweth our hearts. He, who hears our thoughts, judges of them as if they were clothed with words. BFB

8.          Like Nathan with David, our Lord conceals His home thrust under the veil of a parable, and makes His host himself pronounce upon the case. The two debtors are the woman and Simon; the criminality of the one was ten times that of the other (in the proportion of "five hundred" to "fifty"); but both being equally insolvent, both are with equal frankness forgiven; and Simon is made to own that the greatest debtor to forgiving mercy will cling to her Divine Benefactor with the deepest gratitude. Does our Lord then admit that Simon was a forgiving man? Let us see.
   A certain lender had two debtors: the one owed five hundred shillings, and the other fifty. The denarius or shilling was a silver coin issued by Rome which contained nearly seventeen cents' worth of that precious metal. The two debts, therefore, represented respectively about seventy-five dollars, and seven dollars and fifty cents. But at that time a denarius was a day's wages for a laboring man (Mt 20:2,4,12,13), so that the debt is properly translated into our language as if one owed five hundred and the other fifty days of labor. FG

9.            Thou gavest me no water-It was customary with the Jews to show respect and kindness to their welcome guests, by saluting them with a kiss, by washing their feet, and anointing their heads with oil, or some fine ointment. – JWN
   The guest should be afforded an opportunity to wash the dust from his feet, not only for comfort's sake, but also that he might not be humiliated by soiling the carpets on which he walked, and the cushions on which he reclined. The trifling courtesy Simon had omitted; but the woman had amply supplied his omission, bathing the Lord's feet in what Bengel well calls "the most priceless of waters." FG

10.        Faith is profitable both for the good things of this life, and those of the life which is to come; and with reference to both, salvation is ascribed to faith, as the instrumental cause, not to obedience and love, though the faith that doth us good must work by love, and be evidenced by a holy conversation. MP
  In our translation this would seem to be given as a reason why her sins had been forgiven--that she had loved much before they were pardoned; but this is clearly not the meaning. This would be contrary to the whole New Testament, which supposes that love succeeds, not precedes forgiveness; and which nowhere supposes that sins are forgiven because we love God. It would be also contrary to the design of the Saviour here. It was not to show why her sins had been forgiven, but to show that she had given evidence that they actually had been, and that it was proper, therefore, that she should come near to him and manifest this love. The meaning may be thus expressed: "That her sins, so many and aggravated, have been forgiven--that she is no longer such a sinner as you suppose, is manifest from her conduct. She shows deep gratitude, penitence, love. AB

11.      Read Matthe 9:1-6;  And they that sat at meat with him began to say within themselves, Who is this that even forgiveth sins? They were naturally surprised at this marvelous assumption of authority, but in the light of what had just been said they did not dare to express themselves. Ignorance of Christ's person and office caused them to thus question him. It is easy to stumble in the dark. We are not told that Simon joined in asking this question. FG

Lesson 28, First Group of Parables, Matthew 13:1-53; Mark 4:1-34; Luke 8:4-18

1.          What is a parable?

2.          From what normal occupation of people does Jesus draw this parable?

3.          According to Luke what does the seed represent?

4.          List the four kinds of soil and tell what they represent.

5.          What do the fowls of the air represent? What lesson can we learn from this about listening to God’s word?

6.          Explain Luke 8:16-18.

7.          To whom did Jesus explain the parable?

8.          What was the second parable that dealt with sowing seed?

9.          What is the difference in good seed and tares?

10.      When were the wheat and tares to be separated? What was done with the tares?

11.      What was the third parable about? What is the main point in it?

12.      Tell of the fourth parable and what it was about.

13.      What kind of scribe does Jesus mention in Matt. 13:52?

Help With Answers to Lesson 28

1.          And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, &c.--These parables are SEVEN in number; and it is not a little remarkable that while this is the sacred number, the first FOUR of them were spoken to the mixed multitude, while the remaining THREE were spoken to the Twelve in private--these divisions, four and three, being themselves notable in the symbolical arithmetic of Scripture. Another thing remarkable in the structure of these parables is, that while the first of the Seven--that of the Sower--is of the nature of an Introduction to the whole, the remaining Six consist of three pairs--the Second and Seventh, the Third and Fourth, and the Fifth and Sixth, corresponding to each other; each pair setting forth the same general truths, but with a certain diversity of aspect. All this can hardly be accidental. JFB

2.           A Sower went forth to sow. The image here is taken from an employment known to all men, and therefore intelligible to all. Nor can there be a more striking illustration of preaching the gospel, than placing the seed in the ground to spring up hereafter, and bear fruit.
    Sower. One who sows or scatters seed. A farmer. It is not improbable that one was near the Saviour when he spoke this parable. AB
   Orientals live in cities and towns. Isolated farmhouses are practically unknown. A farmer may therefore live several miles from his field, in which case he literally "goes forth" to it. FG

3.          Here the Saviour applies himself to interpret and explain the foregoing parable to his disciples; he tells them,  The seed is the word; the sower is the preacher; the soil or ground, is the heart and soul of man: some hearers he compares to the highway ground, in which the seed lies uncovered for want of the harrow of meditation; others to stony ground, in which the word has no root; no root in their understanding, no root in their memories, in their wills, or in their affections, but they are instantly offended, either at the depth and profoundness of the word, or at the sancitity and strictness of the word, or else at the plainness and simplicity of it. WBNNT

4.          1. Some seeds fell by the way side, and the birds came and devoured them. - Represents one who hears but doesn’t understand.
  2. Others fell upon the rocky places. Represents one who joyfully hears but doesn’t have enough root to remain.
  3. Others fell upon the thorns. – Represent those who allow the cares of the world and deceitful riches to make them unfruitful.
  4. Others fell upon the good ground. – Represents those who hears, understands and becomes fruitful.
   The four soils are four hearts into which truth is sown. The first heart, represented by the wayside, is one which is too hardened for the Word to make any impression. It represents several classes of people, as: 1. Those whose hearts have been made insensible by the routine of meaningless rites and lifeless formalities. 2. Those who had deadened their sensibilities by perversity and indifference. 3. Those whose hearts were hardened by the constant march and countermarch of evil thoughts. God's word lies on the surface of such hearts, and Satan can use any insignificant or innocent passing thoughts as a bird to carry out of their minds anything which they may have heard. The preacher's voice has scarcely died away until some idle criticism of him or some careless bit of gossip about a neighbor causes them to forget the sermon. FG

5.          The great truth here taught is, that hearts all unbroken and hard are no fit soil for saving truth. They apprehend it not (Mt 13:19) as God's means of restoring them to Himself; it penetrates not, makes no impression, but lies loosely on the surface of the heart, till the wicked one--afraid of losing a victim by his "believing to salvation" (Lu 8:12) --finds some frivolous subject by whose greater attractions to draw off the attention, and straightway it is gone. Of how many hearers of the word is this the graphic but painful history! JFB

6.           In these words Christ declares his end and design in revealing unto his disciples the foregoing parable, and why he communicated to them the light of scripture knowledge and gospel mysteries, namely, that they may communicate it to others; and not keep it close unto themselves; even as the candle in a house diffuses and disperses its light to all that come within the reach of it.  Such as are enlightened by God in any measure, with the knowledge and understanding of his word, ought not to conceal and hide this knowledge within themselves, but communicate it to others, and improve it for the good and benefit of others.
  Observe also, the argument which our Saviour makes use of to quicken his disciples to communicate their knowledge, and improve the grace they had received for the good and advantage of others.   To him that hath shall be given, that is, such as improve their spiritual gifts, shall have them increased; such as improve them not shall have them blasted. WBNNT

7.          To the disciples it was given to know these truths. It was important for them, as they were to carry the gospel around the globe. To the others it was not then given. They were too gross, too earthly; they had too grovelling conceptions of the Messiah's kingdom to understand these truths, even if presented. They were not to preach it, and hence our Saviour was at particular pains to instruct his apostles. The Pharisees, and Jews generally, were not prepared for it, and would not have believed it, and therefore he purposely employed a kind of teaching that they did not understand. AB

8.            The kingdom of heaven is likened. The object of all parables in this connection is to explain various features and principles of the kingdom of heaven.
    Christ shows in another parable of the evil seed mixed with the good, that the Church will never be free and rid of offences, both in doctrine and manners, until the day appointed for the restoring of all things comes, and therefore the faithful have to arm themselves with patience and steadfastness. GBN

9.             The object of this parable is, first, to shew that, notwithstanding all the care and vigilance of Christ's ministers, "offences must needs come" into the world, through the subtilty of the devil, who sows mischief in the hearts of men; and secondly, to point out the reason of that long-suffering forbearance towards sinners, which the Almighty is pleased to display. BFB
   His enemy came and sowed. It is by no means uncommon for the malice in the East to show itself in this way. A wicked person may do great injury with little chance of detection. PNTC

10.      That he will himself separate them at the proper time. There is no doubt that it is the duty of the church to attempt to keep itself pure, and to cut off gross and manifest offends, 1Co 5:4,5. He refers to those who may be suspected of hypocrisy, but against whom it cannot be proved; to those who so successfully imitate Christians as to make it difficult or impossible for man to distinguish them. AB

11.        like unto treasure The design of this and the next parable is to represent in general that the Gospel of Jesus is the greatest of blessings. Bp. Pearce. Also to shew the different dispositions of the converts which the Apostles would make to the Gospel; some would embrace it with joy, when found as it were by accident, like treasure hid in the field; others, when found after diligent search, like the merchant seeking precious pearls, would purchase the field and the pearl of great price with all their substance. The last (Mt 13:47) alludes to the occupation of the Apostles as fishermen, and represents them as catching men indiscriminately of all sorts, both good and bad, to compose the visible Church of Christ. BFB
   A treasure hidden in the field. This parable of the hidden treasure, and also those of the pearl of great price and of the net, are recorded only by Matthew.  All three were spoken to the disciples only.  The treasure hidden is the truth of Christ; and the lesson to be taken to heart is the joy of finding this truth, a joy so great that the finder is willing to part with all that he has in order to secure the treasure. TC

12.        A merchant man, seeking goodly pearls]  A story very like this is found in the Talmudical tract Shabbath: "Joseph, who sanctified the Sabbath, had a very rich neighbour; the Chaldeans said, All the riches of this man shall come to Joseph, who sanctifies the Sabbath.  To prevent this, the rich man went and sold all that he had, and bought a pearl, and went aboard of a ship; but the wind carried the pearl away, it fell into the sea, and was swallowed by a fish.  This fish was caught, and the day before the Sabbath it was brought into the market, and they proclaimed, Who wishes to buy this fish?  The people said, Carry it to Joseph, the sanctifier of the Sabbath, who is accustomed to buy things of great value.  They carried it to him, and he bought it, and when he cut it up he found the pearl, and sold it for thirteen pounds weight of golden denarii!"  From some tradition of this kind, our Lord might have borrowed the simile in this parable.
   The meaning of this parable is the same with the other; and both were spoken to impress more forcibly this great truth on the souls of the people:-eternal salvation from sin and its consequences is the supreme good of man, should be sought after above all things, and prized beyond all that God has made. Those merchants who compass sea and land for temporal gain, condemn the slothfulness of the majority of those called Christians, who, though they confess that this salvation is the most certain and the most excellent of all treasures, yet seek worldly possessions in preference to it!  Alas, for him who expects to find any thing more amiable than God, more worthy to fill his heart, and more capable of making him happy! ACC

13.         Therefore every scribe who hath been made a disciple to the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. As a householder graces his banquet with things already in the house, and with other things which have just been provided, so a religious teacher must refresh his hearers out of both his past and his present experiences and study. Old lessons must be clothed in new garments.

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