Book 7

Lesson 45, Jesus at a feast in Jerusalem,
John 7:11-8:11

Lesson 46, Jesus, the light of the world,
John 8:12-59

Lesson 47, Jesus and the man born blind,
John 9:1-41

Lesson 48, Jesus, the good shepherd,
John 10:1-21

Lesson 49, Seventy disciples sent to Judea,
Luke 10:1-24

Lesson 50, The good Samaritan,
Luke 10:25-37

Lesson 51, Jesus in Mary and Martha’s house, and the disciples wish to know how to pray,
Luke 10:38-11:13

Lesson 45, Jesus at a feast in Jerusalem,
John 7:11-8:11

1.               While the feast of verses 10 and 11 is not named, what festival would you conclude it was? (See help on this question).

2.               What were the opinions people had about Jesus at this time?

3.               Why were some fearful to speak openly about him?

4.               Explain what Jesus meant in verse 17: “If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God or whether I speak of myself.”

5.               What lesson did Jesus try to teach the Jews regarding circumcision and working on the Sabbath?

6.               When Jews said they knew where Jesus came from, and it confused them, how did Jesus respond as to his origin?

7.               What is meant by “his hour had not yet come”?

8.               What great invitation did Jesus give on the last day of the festival?

9.               What did he mean by, “out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water?

10.           What issue caused the division among the people?

11.           What reason did the officers give to the chief priests and Pharisees for not taking Jesus into custody?

12.           Who said, “Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?” Where else is this man mentioned? (Think of at least two instances.

13.           What problem did the Scribes and Pharisees bring to Jesus and what did they ask him to do?

14.           What was Jesus’ reply?

15.           What did Jesus say to the one they brought to him? (Does this mean he condoned what had been done?

Help with Lesson 45,

1.               He went up to show his obedience to his Father's commands, Ex 23:17. The feast of tabernacles was the same with the feast of ingathering in the end of the year, when they had gathered their labours out of the field, mentioned Exo. 23:16; and that was one of those three times (as appears from that chapter) when all the males in Israel were to appear before the Lord, John 7:17. Christ being born under the law, showeth a punctual obedience to it; and therefore, in obedience to it, he would go up: but his wisdom dwelt with prudence; and therefore he did not go up openly, not in any crowd of company, so as a public notice could be taken of him; but secretly, to teach us that we are not so strictly tied up to ritual precepts, which concern only rites and circumstances of worship, that we may not abate them sometimes for the performance of moral duties. It was a moral duty incumbent upon our Saviour to preserve himself, with what wisdom and prudence he could, from the rage of his enemies, till his time should fully come to yield up himself to their rage; which was the reason why he, who went up now singly, without any company, when he went up to the last passover, where he was to suffer, went up with all imaginable boldness and alacrity, leading the way, to their amazement, Mark 10:32. MP

2.               The multitude were divided in their opinions concerning him: those who knew him best said, He is a good man. Those who spoke according to the character given him by the priests, &c., said, Nay; but he deceiveth the people. Those who spoke evil of him spoke out, because they had the rulers on their side; but those who spoke good of him were obliged to do it in private, because they feared these rulers. Calumny and slander are among the privileged orders; they stalk abroad with their thousand brazen mouths, and blast the reputation of the followers of God. Benevolence and candour are only on sufferance; and a whisper in secret is the most they are permitted to give in behalf of Christ and his followers, whose laws and maxims condemn a vicious world, and goad it to revenge. ACC

3.               Verse 13.  Spake openly of him. The word translated openly, here, is commonly rendered boldly. This refers, doubtless, to those who really believed on him.  His enemies were not silent; but his friends had not confidence to speak of him openly or boldly--that is, to speak what they really thought. Many supposed that he was the Messiah, yet even this they did not dare to profess. All that they could say in his favour was that he was a good man. There are always many such friends of Jesus in the world who are desirous of saying something good about him, but who, from fear or shame, refuse to make a full acknowledgement of him. Many will praise his morals, his precepts, and his holy life, while they are ashamed to speak of his divinity or his atonement, and still more to acknowledge that they are dependent on him for salvation. AB

4.               If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it is of God, or whether I speak from myself. Those who would test the divinity of the doctrine of Christ can not do so by rendering a mere mechanical obedience to his teaching. A willing, heartfelt obedience is essential to a true knowledge of his doctrine. Such a disposition makes a good and honest heart in which the seeds of his kingdom must inevitably grow. But a spirit of disobedience is the general source of all skepticism. FG

5.               Verse 22.  But of the fathers] That is, it came from the patriarchs. Circumcision was not, properly speaking, one of the laws of the Mosaic institution, it having been given at first to Abraham, and continued among his posterity till the giving of the law: Gen. 17:9,10, &c.
  Ye-circumcise a man.] That is, a male child: for every male child was circumcised when eight days old; and if the eighth day after its birth happened to be a Sabbath, it was nevertheless circumcised, that the law might not be broken, which had enjoined the circumcision to take place at that time, Le 12:3. From this and several other circumstances it is evident that the keeping of the Sabbath, even in the strictest sense of the word, ever admitted of the works of necessity and mercy to be done on it; and that those who did not perform such works on that day, when they had opportunity, were properly violators of every law founded on the principles of mercy and justice. If the Jews had said, Why didst thou not defer the healing of the sick man till the ensuing day? He might have well answered, Why do ye not defer the circumcising of your children to the ensuing day, when the eighth day happens to be a Sabbath?-which is a matter of infinitely less consequence than the restoration of this long-afflicted man. ACC

6.               And I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not. Our Lord here asserts their ignorance as to his divine origin. Since he came from God, and they did not know God, they consequently did not know whence he came. FG
  Ye know whence I am. This is a reply to their assertion that they did. If they really did they would know that he came from God. They did not even know God, or they would know him whom God sent. PNTC
  Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am; you might have known me by the doctrine which I have taught, and the miracles which I have wrought among you; and you had known me, if you had not shut your eyes against the light, which shone in your face: or, you say and think that you know me. Others think that it is an irony, or as a question, Do you know me so well? If you did, you would know that I came not of myself, but was sent by my Father; and he that sent me is truth itself: but you know not the Father, and therefore cannot know me as indeed I am. MP

7.               They sought therefore to take him. Because they understood his language as referring to God and were incensed that he should so openly declare them ignorant of God.
  And no man laid his hand on him, because his hour was not yet come. Because it was not the will of God that he should be arrested at this time. FG
  His hour. The proper and the appointed time for his death. See Matt. 21:46. AB

8.               The feast of tabernacles (which is the first here meant) lasted eight days; the first and last of which were to be kept holy with religious assemblies and sacrifices; and it was a custom among the Jews, upon that solemn day, to offer up a pot of water unto God, which they drew out of the fountain of Siloam: with reference to this custom, Christ here cries with a loud voice, inviting the people to fetch and draw from him, as from a living fountain, all the sanctifying gifts and saving graces of the Holy Spirit.
  Learn hence, That Jesus Christ is the original and fountain of all saving grace, whom, if we thirst after, repair to, and by faith depend upon, as a Mediator, we shall certainly receive what influences of grace soever we want and stand in need of. MH
  Verse 37.  In the last day. The eighth day of the festival. That great day. The day of the holy convocation or solemn assembly, Lev. 23:36. This seems to have been called the great day, 1st. Because of the solemn assembly, and because it was the closing scene. 2nd. Because, according to their traditions, on the previous days they offered sacrifices for the heathen nations as well as for themselves, but on this day for the Jews only (Lightfoot). 3rd. Because on this day they abstained from all servile labour (Lev. 23:39), and regarded it as a holy day. 4th. On this day they finished the reading of the law, which they commenced at the beginning of the feast. 5th. Because on this day probably occurred the ceremony of drawing water from the pool of Siloam. On the last day of the feast it was customary to perform a solemn ceremony in this manner: The priest filled a golden vial with water from the fount of Siloam (See Barnes for John 9:7), which was borne with great solemnity, attended with the clangour of trumpets, through the gate of the temple, and being mixed with wine, was poured on the sacrifice on the altar. What was the origin of this custom is unknown.  Some suppose, and not improbably, that it arose from an improper understanding of the passage in Isa 12:3: "With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." It is certain that no such ceremony is commanded by Moses. It is supposed to be probable that Jesus stood and cried while they were performing this ceremony, that he might, 1st. illustrate the nature of his doctrine by this; and 2nd. call off their attention from a rite that was uncommanded, and that could not confer eternal life.
  Jesus stood. In the temple, in the midst of thousands of the people. If any man thirst. Spiritually. If any man feels his need of salvation. See John 4:13,14; Matt. 5:6; Rev. 22:17. The invitation is full and free to all.
 Let him come unto me, &c. Instead of depending on this ceremony of drawing water let him come to me, the Messiah, and he shall find an ever-abundant supply for all the wants of his soul. AB

9.               Verse 38.  He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath said] He who receives me as the Messiah, according to what the Scripture has said concerning me; my person, birth, conduct, preaching, and miracles, being compared with what is written there as ascertaining the true Messiah. Out of his belly-from his heart and soul; for in his soul shall this Spirit dwell. ACC

10.           Some of the well disposed toward Jesus, seeing the boldness with which he proclaimed himself, asserted that he was the prophet spoken of by Moses (Deut. 18:15), which prophet was thought by some to be the Messiah himself, and by others to be no more than the Messiah's forerunner.
  Still others of the multitude went further and asserted that he was the Christ. These latter were confronted by those who contended that Jesus was not born in the right place nor of the right family. These did not know that he had satisfied the very objections which they named. FG

11.           Verse 46.  Never man spake like this man.] Though these officers had gone on the errand of their masters, they had not entered into their spirit. They were sent to apprehend a seditious man, and a false prophet. They came where Jesus taught; they found him to be a different person to the description they received from their masters, and therefore did not attempt to touch or molest him. No doubt they expected when they told their employers the truth, that they would have commended them, and acknowledged their own mistake: but these simple people were not in the secret of their masters' malice. They heard, they felt, that no man ever spoke with so much grace, power, majesty, and eloquence. They had never heard a discourse so affecting and persuasive. So Jesus still speaks to all who are simple of heart. He speaks pardon-he speaks holiness-he speaks salvation to all who have ears to hear. No man ever did or can speak as he does. He teaches THE TRUTH, the whole TRUTH, and nothing but the TRUTH. ACC

12.           Nicodemus -- One of them. That is, one of the great council or Sanhedrim. God often places one or more pious men in legislative assemblies to vindicate his honour and his law; and he often gives a man grace on such occasions boldly to defend his cause; to put men upon their proof, and to confound the proud and the domineering. We see in this case, also, that a man, at one time timid and fearful (comp.) John 3:1), may on other occasions be bold, and fearlessly defend the truth as it is in Jesus. This example should lead every man intrusted with authority or office fearlessly to defend the truth of God, and, when the rich and the mighty are pouring contempt on Jesus and his cause, to stand forth as its fearless defender. AB
  Nicodemus is also mentioned in John 3 and John 19:39.

13.           Teacher, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in the very act. In the presence of the woman and the form of their accusation we see their coarse brutality. The case could have been presented to Jesus without the presence of the woman and without a detailed accusation. FG
  The bringing of the woman before Jesus for judgment was a device similar to that in which he was asked to decide about the tribute money (Matt. 22:15-22 and notes thereon).  The scribes and Pharisees cared nothing about the woman, but wished either to excite the people against Jesus or to embroil him with the Roman authorities.  If he judged the woman worthy of death, that would anger the people, as capital punishment for adultery was becoming very unpopular.  It would also bring him to the notice of the Roman governor, whose consent was necessary to the execution of a death sentence.  That would have given the scribes and Pharisees a chance to accuse him of a political offense. TC

14.           He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. Under the law (Deut. 17:7), the witnesses were to cast the first stone. Jesus maintained and vindicated the law, but imposed a condition which they had overlooked. The one who executed the law must be free from the same crime, lest by stoning the woman he condemn himself as worthy of a like death. There is no doubt that the words of Jesus impressed upon them the truth that freedom from the outward act did not imply inward purity or sinlessness (Matt. 5:27,28). FG

15.           Hath no man condemned thee? Jesus had directed them, if innocent, to cast a stone, thus to condemn her, or to use the power which he gave them to condemn her. No one of them had done that. They had accused her, but they had not proceeded to the act expressive of judicial condemnation. AB

Lesson 46, Jesus, the light of the world,
John 8:12-59

1.   Jesus said, “I am the ________________ of the world.” Those who follow him will not do what?

2.   Were the Pharisees correct in accusing him of bearing record of himself? How did Jesus respond to this accusation?

3.   What does Jesus say about his judgment in contrast to the judgment of men?

4.   Since Jesus said the testimony of two is true, and he is one witness and the Father is another, how had the Father born witness to Jesus?

5.   What did he mean by telling the Pharisees they could not come where he was going? (verse 21)

6.   In verses 23 and 24 how does Jesus show that while in the flesh he was not just an ordinary human being?

7.   What did Jesus say was the source of what he had to say? (verses 25-26)

8.   To what did Jesus refer when he mentioned his being “lifted up”?

9.   If Jesus was not left alone, as he said, how does this prove Jesus is not the one and only person of God?

10.           What conditions did Jesus say men must meet to abide in his word? What does the term “indeed” (verse 31) imply?

11.           What makes men free? (verse 32) How does it do this?

12.           When the Jews said they were of Abraham’s seed and had never been in bondage to any man, show that this was false.

13.           How did Jesus prove to them they were not really of Abraham’s seed? (verses 37-38)

14.           Whom did Jesus say was their father? (verses 42-45) How could this be?

15.           What challenge did Jesus give them regarding his purity and divinity? (verse 46)

16.           How does Jesus say a person can escape death? (verse 51) What kind of death does he mean?

17.           What did Jesus say would make him a liar? (verse 55)

18.           How did Abraham rejoice to see the day of Jesus? (verse 56)

19.           What does Jesus affirm by saying “Before Abraham was, I am?” (verse 58)

Help for Lesson 46

1.   Christ is the Light of the world. God is light, and Christ is the image of the invisible God. One sun enlightens the whole world; so does one Christ, and there needs no more. What a dark dungeon would the world be without the sun! So would it be without Jesus, by whom light came into the world. Those who follow Christ shall not walk in darkness. They shall not be left without the truths which are necessary to keep them from destroying error, and the directions in the way of duty, necessary to keep them from condemning sin. MH
  I am the light of the world. The metaphor of light was common, and signified knowledge and life; darkness is opposed to light, being the symbol of ignorance and death. FG
  In this sublime claim we come to a decisive place.  It will not do to praise Jesus and deny his deity. Only as the Son of God can we justify and accept this language which otherwise is mere conceit and froth. RWP
  Shall not walk in darkness] He shall be saved from ignorance, infidelity, and sin. If he follow me, become my disciple, and believe on my name, he shall have my Spirit to bear witness with his, that he is a child of God. He shall have the light of life-such a light as brings and supports life. The sun, the fountain of light, is also the fountain of life: by his vivifying influences, all things live-neither animal nor vegetative life could exist, were it not for his influence. Jesus, the Sun of righteousness, Mal 4:2, is the fountain of all spiritual and eternal LIFE. His light brings life with it, and they who walk in his light live in his life. ACC

2.   Thou bearest record] As if they had said, Dost thou imagine that we shall believe thee, in a matter so important, on thy bare assertion? Had these people attended to the teaching and miracles of Christ, they would have seen that his pretensions to the Messiahship were supported by the most irrefragable testimony. ACC
  bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true--How does He meet this specious cavil? Not by disputing the wholesome human maxim that "self-praise is no praise," but by affirming that He was an exception to the rule, or rather, that it had no application to Him. JFB

3.   for I know whence I came, &c. I know that I came down from heaven: and I being a Divine Person, and one essential attribute of the Godhead being truth, therefore it necessarily follows that my single testimony of myself must be true; and this ye would readily acknowledge, but that, by means of your unreasonable prejudices, "ye cannot tell whence I come and whither I go;" that is, ye will not believe me to come from heaven, and to be a Divine Person. BFB
  My record is true. The Pharisees disputed this. Ordinarily the testimony of a man that he is sent from God is insufficient. He may be deceived, or a deceiver. But Jesus could not be deceived, for he knew all things; nor a deceiver, for he was Truth. Besides, he had other testimony (John 8:18). PNTC

4.   I am he that beareth witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me. The Father had borne witness to the Son by the prophets, including John the Baptist, by his voice at the baptism and transfiguration, by the works wrought by Jesus, and by the very nature of the life manifested by our Lord throughout his entire ministry. If the witness of two men establishes truth, much more the witness of the two divine voices--that of the Father and of the Son. FG

5.   Whither I go, ye cannot come. Seeking their Messiah as an earthly and not as a spiritual deliverer, they would not find him, and hence would die unforgiven, and therefore could not come to the land whither Jesus went, since the unforgiven can not enter there. FG

6.   Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. Jesus replies that they are even now separated from him by their origin and nature, and that theirs is the sinful nature, and that they shall die in it unless delivered from it through faith in him. FG
  Ye are from beneath; I am from above--contrasting Himself, not as in John 3:31, simply with earthborn messengers of God, but with men sprung from and breathing an opposite element from His, which rendered it impossible that He and they should have any present fellowship, or dwell eternally together. JFB

7.   Jesus' bold call to them to believe in him leads them to make a counter demand that he confess himself to them, but Jesus had all along confessed himself to them as the Son of the Father, the bread and water of life, the light of the world, etc., and had no new confession to make. FG
  See John 3:32 – “What he hath seen and heard, of that he beareth witness; and no man receiveth his witness.”
  He that sent me is true] Whatever he hath spoken of you by the prophets shall surely come to pass; his word cannot fail. ACC

8.   When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am \Heb 1:1-13:25, etc. Misconstruing his words as spoken in this spirit, the Jews would crucify him; but when their rage had accomplished his death and spent itself, they would look back upon his life--especially the closing scenes of it--and see that his soul contained no bitterness toward them, that what he had said was true, and was spoken at the dictation of his Father. At the day of Pentecost and the season which followed it, the repentance of the Jews amply fulfilled this prophecy. FG

9.   The word for “alone” is from the original text, “monos.” It is joined with its noun to other verbs also, so that what is predicated may be declared to apply to some one person alone. Since Jesus was “alone” there was another with him.

10.           If ye abide in my word, then are ye truly my disciples. Discipleship is an abiding condition--a life, not an act. The prejudices and preconceived notions of these Jews would prevent them from believing on him. FG
  They "believed on him," but their faith was not yet made perfect by obedience. Hence he adds the condition of discipleship. Their belief must move them to accept his word and obey it. There is a condition, continue in my word; a promise, shall be my disciples. PNTC

11.           And the truth shall make you free.] It was a maxim of the Jews, "That no man was free, but he who exercised himself in the meditation of the law." No man is truly free, but he in whose heart the power of sin is destroyed, and who has received the Spirit of adoption, through which he cries, Abba! Father! See Rom. 8:15. The bondage of sin is the most grievous bondage; and freedom from its guilt and influence is the greatest liberty. ACC
  See Rom. 2:8; Gal. 5:7; 1 Pet. 1:22

12.           Never yet been in bondage to any man. By this answer the new temporary believers among the rulers and Pharisees, not yet free from class pride, meant that a son of Abraham ought never even to be considered as having been in bondage.  They knew that, historically, their reply was false, because the Jews had been enslaved in Egypt and Babylon, and were even then under the heel of the Roman emperor. TC
  "Talk of freedom to us? Pray when or to whom were we ever in bondage?" This bluster sounds almost ludicrous from such a nation. Had they forgotten their long and bitter bondage in Egypt? their dreary captivity in Babylon? their present bondage to the Roman yoke, and their restless eagerness to throw it off? But probably they saw that our Lord pointed to something else--freedom, perhaps, from the leaders of sects or parties--and were not willing to allow their subjection even to these. Our Lord, therefore, though He knew what slaves they were in this sense, drives the ploughshare somewhat deeper than this, to a bondage they little dreamt of. JFB

13.           Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham. Jesus here asserts that true descent is spiritual--a common nature manifesting itself in a similarity of works. FG
  He had just said He "knew they were Abraham's children," that is, according to the flesh; but the children of his faith and holiness they were not, but the reverse. JFB

14.           Ye are of your father the devil, etc. By your hatred of the truth and your desire to commit murder, which are notable lusts of the devil, you show that you are spiritually derived from him. He was a murderer in the very beginning, for he brought sin into the world, which caused death (Ro 5:12). He shrinks from the truth as you do, because it meets no response in his heart. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own offspring, for he is a liar and the father of lying. FG

15.           Which of you convicteth me of sin? If I say truth, why do ye not believe me? If you can not convict me of sin, then what I say must be true. Why, then, do you not believe me? FG
  If any of you can prove that I have spoken to you any thing that is false, and not consonant to the will of my Father, do it; but which of you is able to charge me with any such thing? If there be no such thing, but I have told you what is the very truth, and the will of my Father, as to what you are to believe and do, why do you not believe me? For every reasonable soul is a debtor to truth. MP

16.           If a man keep my word, he shall never see death. Jesus here re-states the thought in John 8:31,32. "To keep" here means to cherish and obey. Sin is bondage, and its wages is death. The fleshly body of the Christian dies, but the spirit within him does not. His eternal life begins in this world (John 5:24). FG

17.           How he professes his knowledge of his Father, with the greatest certainty, as one that was neither afraid nor ashamed to own it: If I should say I know him not, I should be a liar like unto you. He would not deny his relation to God, to humour the Jews, and to avoid their reproaches, and prevent further trouble; nor would he retract what he had said, nor confess himself either deceived or a deceiver; if he should, he would be found a false witness against God and himself. Note, Those who disown their religion and relation to God, as Peter, are liars, as much as hypocrites are, who pretend to know him, when they do not. See 1 Tim 6:13-14. Mr Clark observes well, upon this, that it is a great sin to deny God's grace in us. MH

18.           Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day. "My day" means the mediatorial manifestation of Messiah. Abraham saw it by faith in the promised seed. FG
  Abraham was permitted to have a view of the death of the Messiah as a sacrifice for sin, represented by the command to offer Isaac, Gen. 22:1-13. Comp. Heb. 11:19. The death of the Messiah as a sacrifice for the sins of men was that which characterized his work-- which distinguished his times and his advent, and this was represented to Abraham clearly by the command to offer his son. From this arose the proverb among the Jews (Gen. 22:14), "In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen," or it shall be provided for; a proverb evidently referring to the offering of the Messiah on the mount for the sins of men. By this event Abraham was impressively told that a parent would not be required to offer in sacrifice his sons for the sins of his soul--a thing which has often been done by heathen; but that God would provide a victim, and in due time an offering would be made for the world. AB

19.           Before Abraham was born, I am. "I was" would simply have expressed priority, but "I am" marks timeless existence. It draws the contrast between the created and the uncreated, the temporal and the eternal. Compare Exo. 3:14. FG
  “Before Abraham was, I am” - The utterance is a remarkable one. It does not merely assert that he was before Abraham, but before Abraham was, I AM. It identifies with the I AM of the Old Testament. Divinity has no past tense, no future tense, but always the present. PNTC

Lesson 47, Jesus and the man born blind, John 9:1-41

1.   According to John 8:59, where was Jesus when he met the blind man?

2.   What question did the disciples ask Jesus about the man?

3.   How did Jesus answer? To what did he attribute the blind man’s condition?

4.   How was the man’s sight restored?

5.   Describe the reaction of the Pharisees.

6.   How did they verify that the man had been born blind?

7.   What answer did the man give to the Pharisees as to how his sight was restored?

8.   Why would the Pharisees accuse the man of being a disciple of Jesus?

9.   Who said, “Now we know that God heareth not sinners: but if any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth”? Does this mean no sinner can pray and expect God to hear?

10.           What reason could the Pharisees have had to say to the man that he had been “altogether born in sins?”

11.           After Jesus heard the Pharisees had cast the man out, what did he do and say to the man?

12.           How did Jesus reveal his identity to this man? (verses 35-37).

13.           How did this affect the man?

14.           Complete the following: “For ______________ I am come into this world, that they which see me might not ________; and that which see might be made __________________. What does this mean?

15.           What was the reaction of the Pharisees?

16.           How did Jesus respond to them?

Help with Lesson 47

1.   As Jesus passed by. As he was leaving the temple, Joh 8:59.  This man was in the way in which Jesus was going to escape from the Jews. AB

2.   Rabbi, who sinned, this man, or his parents, that he should be born blind? They assumed that all suffering was retributive, and asked for whose sins this man suffered, regarding it as a case of extreme hardship, for to be born blind is uncommon, even in the East. Their question had reference to the doctrine of transmigration of souls, the man being regarded as possibly having sinned in some pre-existing state. FG

3.   Neither did this man sin, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him. Jesus found a third alternative to their dilemma. The man's parents were sinners, but neither their sin nor the beggar's own sin had caused this calamity. It had come upon him as part of God's plan for his life; it was part of the providential arrangement by which God governs the world. FG
Neither did this man sin, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him. Jesus found a third alternative to their dilemma. The man's parents were sinners, but neither their sin nor the beggar's own sin had caused this calamity. It had come upon him as part of God's plan for his life; it was part of the providential arrangement by which God governs the world.  FG

4.   Jesus was not asked to cure this man. The curative effects of saliva are held in many places. The Jews held saliva efficacious for eye-trouble, but it was forbidden on the Sabbath. "That Jesus supposed some virtue lay in the application of the clay is contradicted by the fact that in other cases of blindness He did not use it" (Dods). Cf. Mr 8:23. Why he here accommodated himself to current belief we do not know unless it was to encourage the man to believe. He made clay (epoiêsen plon). Only use of pêlos, old word for clay, in N.T. in this chapter and Ro 9:21. The kneading of the clay and spittle added another offence against the Sabbath rules of the rabbis. Anointed his eyes with the clay (epechrisen autou ton pêlon epi tous ophthalmou$). First aorist active indicative of epichriw, old verb, to spread on, anoint, here only and verse Joh 9:11 in N.T. "He spread the clay upon his eyes."  RWP
    And said unto him, Go, wash &c. When outward means were employed by our Lord, in performing his mighty works, they were not designed to have any operation of themselves; being wholly inadequate to the effect which followed. In the present instance, He probably had a view to try the man's faith, as Elisha did that of Naaman, 2Ki 5:10. BFB

5.   The Pharisees asked him how, &c. The proper question to have been asked in the case was whether he had in fact done it, and not in what way. The question, also, about a sinner's conversion is whether in fact it has been done, and not about the mode or manner in which it is effected; yet it is remarkable that no small part of the disputes and inquiries among men are about the mode in which the Spirit renews the heart, and not about the evidence that it is done. AB

6.   Until they called the parents of him that had received his sight. The man's advocacy of Jesus as prophet suggested to those cunning diplomats that there was collusion between Jesus and the man, and that the cure was fraudulent. They therefore denied the cure and sent for the parents, to whom they put the threefold question as to sonship, blindness and cure. FG

7.   One thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see. As to the doings of Jesus, whether fraudulent or not, he could not answer, but he could say that there was no sham or deception about his eyesight. FG

8.   Thou art his disciple; but we are disciples of Moses. In Jewish estimation, Moses stood next to God. To forsake Moses for another prophet was to be an apostate. Such reviling was a severe test, but the man stood it. FG

9.   God heareth not sinners] I believe the word amartwlwn signifies heathens, or persons not proselyted to the Jewish religion; and therefore it is put in opposition to yeosebhv, a worshipper of the true God. See the note on Lu 7:37. But in what sense may it be said, following our common version, that God heareth not sinners? When they regard iniquity in their heart-when they wish to be saved, and yet abide in their sins-when they will not separate themselves from the workers and works of iniquity. In all these cases, God heareth not sinners. ACC

10.                       Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? They give here the Jewish answer to the question asked in Joh 9:2. Do you, so stamped a sinner from birth, presume to teach us, the heads of Israel? They had been denying that he had been blind; they now inconsistently taunt him with blindness as an evidence of his sin. FG

11.                       Jesus heard that they had cast him out. His was a sad plight, indeed. To be put out of the synagogue was to be put on a level with the heathen, and to be left without a country or a religious fellowship.
     And finding him, he said, Dost thou believe on the Son of God? Being cut off from all that came through Moses, Jesus was leading him into all that came through the Son of God.  FG

12.                       Dost thou believe on the Son of God?  Hitherto he had understood little of the true character of Jesus. He believed that he had power to heal him, and he inferred that he must be a prophet, Joh 9:17.  He believed according to the light he had, and he now showed that he was prepared to believe all that Jesus said. This is the nature of true faith. It believes all that God has made known, and it is prepared to receive all that he will teach. The phrase Son of God here is equivalent to the Messiah. AB

13.                       And who is he, Lord, that I may believe on him? The form of the man's question showed that he regarded a knowledge of the Son of God as a privilege beyond all hope or expectation, and the reply of Jesus is suited to this idea.
     Thou hast both seen him, and he it is that speaketh with thee. Thus the unhoped for had been actually and sensually realized. To the outcast of the synagogue here and to the outcast of the nation at Jacob's well (Joh 4:26), how fully Jesus revealed himself! FG

14.                       For judgment came I into this world, that they that see not may see; and that they that see may become blind. The life course of Jesus attracted the needy and repelled the self-satisfied, and was therefore a continuous judgment, while those conscious of their deficiencies and ready to ask for light received it (Joh 9:36-38). Those satisfied with their own opinion became daily more blinded by their bigotry. See Joh 9:24,34 and Mt 11:25. FG

15.                       Are we blind also?] These Pharisees understood Christ as speaking of blindness in a spiritual sense, and wished to know if he considered them in that state. ACC

16.                       If ye were blind, ye should have no sin. If you were conscious of your spiritual darkness, and sought light, you either find it or not be blamed for your failure to do so.
   But now ye say, We see: your sin remaineth. They could see if they would, and were responsible for their blindness. FG

Lesson 48, Jesus, the good shepherd, John 10:1-21

1.   Complete the verse: “Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the ______________ into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a ______________ and a ________________.” What does Jesus mean here?

2.   Who is “the shepherd of the sheep” and who are represented by the sheep?

3.   Who is the “Porter” of verse 3?

4.   How well does the shepherd know the sheep? What does he do to show this?

5.   Why does this text say the sheep won’t follow a stranger? What does this tell us about what Jesus’ followers must do?

6.   Who would the “strangers” represent?

7.   Since the disciples didn’t understand what Jesus was talking about what did he do? (vs 6).

8.   Who does the “door of the sheep” represent? How is this appropriate?

9.   Whom does Jesus mean were “robbers and thieves?”

10. What differences does Jesus say are between the good shepherd and the thief? (vss 9-10)

11. What does the good shepherd do for his sheep? How does this apply to Jesus?

12. Who are the “hirelings?”

13. Who are the “other sheep” mentioned in verse 16?

14. Explain how Jesus can lay down his life and take it up again. (vss 17-18).

15. What was the reaction of the hearers to what Jesus said?

Help with Lesson 48

1.      In this section Jesus proceeds to contrast his own care for humanity with that manifested by the Pharisees, who had just cast out the beggar. Old Testament prophecies were full of declarations that false shepherds would arise to the injury of God's flock (Ezek. 34:1-6; Jer. 23:1-6; Zech. 11:4-11). But other prophecies spoke of the true shepherding of God and his Messiah (Psa. 23:1-6; 77:20; 80:1; 95:7; Jer. 31:10; Ezek. 34:31; Mic. 7:14; Isa. 43:11). The Pharisees were fulfilling the first line of prophecies, and Jesus was fulfilling the second. The sheepfolds of the East are roofless enclosures, made of loose stone, or surrounded by thornbushes. They have but one door. Jesus, the true shepherd, came in the proper and appointed way (and was the proper and appointed Way), thus indicating his office as shepherd. A thief steals by cunning in one's absence; a robber takes by violence from one's person. The Pharisees were both. They stole the sheep in Messiah's absence, and they slew Messiah when he came. They did not come in the ways ordained of God. FG

2.      God's people are "the sheep of his pasture" (Psa. 79:13; 95:7; 100:3). ISBE

3.      Porters kept the gates of private houses and of cities, 2 Sam. 18:26; 2 Kings 7:10; Mark 13:34; John 10:3.  The porters of the temple were Levites, at one period four thousand in number, divided into courses, 1 Chron 16:42; 23:5.  They stood on guard at every gate, and were on duty within the temple in their regular courses, 1 Chron. 16:42; 23:5.  They stood on guard at every gate, and were on duty within the temple in their regular courses, 1 Chron. 26:1,13,19; 2 Chron. 8:14; 35:15. By night also they cheered the lonely hours with songs of praise, Psa. 134:1-3. ATSD

4.      To him the porter openeth. Several small flocks were sometimes kept in one field. The door was fastened from the inside with sticks or bars by the porter, who remained with the sheep during the night, and opened for the shepherds in the morning. The fold is the church, Christ is the door, the sheep are the disciples, and the shepherd is Christ. The porter is probably part of the drapery of the parable. If he represents anybody, it is God, who decides who shall enter through the door. FG
By name. A mark of complete supervision and tender care.  The sheep are cared for as a flock, and each sheep in the flock is also known and watched by the shepherd. TC

5.      And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him. The mingled flocks are separated by the calling voices of the several shepherds. The control of the Pharisees was not of this order. The authority of the synagogues had passed into their hands, and their rule was about the same as when thieves and robbers gained possession of the sheepfold. The people were disposed to flee from them (Mt 9:36). FG

6.      And a stranger will they not follow. That is, a man who, pretending to be a shepherd of the flock of God, is a stranger to that salvation which he professes to preach. His mode of preaching soon proves, to those whose hearts are acquainted with the truths of God, that he is a stranger to them; and therefore, knowing him to have got into the fold in an improper way, they consider him a thief, a robber, and a murderer; and who can blame them if they wholly desert his ministry? There are preachers of this kind among all classes. ACC

7.      This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them. The word here translated "parable" is not the word "parabole," which John never uses, but the word "paroimia," which the Synoptists never use. Paroimia means, literally, "beside the way," that is, speech not of the common or direct form, that is, a similitude or allegory. The idea of loving care was so foreign to the nature of the Pharisees that they could not comprehend the figures which clothed such a thought. FG

8.      I am the door of the sheep. I myself am the door of God's sheepfold; the way which God hath revealed for the salvation of men; by which alone He hath appointed to bring them to eternal happiness. BFB

9.      It does not matter how many false teachers there have been, neither how old they have been. These terms must be applied to the matter he speaks of. And therefore when he calls himself the door, he calls all those thieves and robbers who take upon themselves this name of "door", which none of the prophets can do, for they showed the sheep that Christ was the door. GBN
    He speaks of the past, and refers to false Messiahs. FG

10. The door is here spoken of with reference to the sheep, and hence becomes a symbol of entrance into protection and shelter, or exit to liberty and plenty.
    Those who enter into the priesthood that they may enjoy the revenues of the Church, are the basest and vilest of thieves and murderers. Their ungodly conduct is a snare to the simple, and the occasion of much scandal to the cause of Christ. Their doctrine is deadly; they are not commissioned by Christ, and therefore they cannot profit the people. Their character is well pointed out by the Prophet Ezekiel, Eze 34:2, &c. Wo be to the shepherds of Israel, that do feed themselves! Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool; ye kill them that are fed: but ye feed not the flock, &c, How can worldly-minded, hireling, fox-hunting, and card-playing priests read these words of the Lord, without trembling to the centre of their souls! Wo to those parents who bring up their children merely for Church honours and emoluments! Suppose a person have all the Church's revenues, if he have God's wo, how miserable is his portion! Let none apply this censure to any one class of preachers, exclusively. ACC

11. The good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep. The verses Joh 10:11-14 set forth the perfect self-sacrifice through which the blessings of Christ have been obtained for us. The world-ruling spirit blesses itself through the sacrifice of the people; the Christ-spirit blesses the people through the sacrifice of self. FG

12. He that is an hireling, and not a shepherd. Shepherds were not, as a rule, owners of the sheep, but they were expected to love and care for them by reason of their office as shepherds. FG
    Whose own the sheep are not] A hireling priest, who has never been the instrument of bringing souls to God, will not abide with them in the time of danger or persecution. They are not the produce of his labour, faith, and prayers: he has no other interest in their welfare than that which comes from the fleece and the fat. The hireling counts the sheep his own, no longer than they are profitable to him; the good shepherd looks upon them as his, so long as he can be profitable to them. ACC

13. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice: and they shall become one flock, one shepherd. Jesus was speaking to the Jews, who had been frequently spoken of in Scripture as God's flock. The other sheep were Gentiles. They are spoken of as scattered sheep, and not as flocks, because with them there was no unity. Here, as everywhere, the truth breaks through, revealing Christ as the world's Redeemer, who would break down the middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile, and cause all true worshipers to have a common relationship to one Master. FG

14. Therefore doth the Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I may take it again. Jesus did not permit his life to be sacrificed so as to become cast away, but to be raised again as an earnest of the resurrection of all flesh.
    No one taketh it away from me, but I lay it down of myself. This shows that his death was voluntary, and with the resurrection which followed, it was in full and perfect accordance with his original commission or commandment from the Father. FG

15. Here the evangelist shews what different effects this sermon of our Saviour had upon the Jews; many of them calumniate and slander him, as one possessed and mad, and therefore not to be heard and minded; others of calmer thoughts said, That the doctrine be taught, and the late miracle which he had wrought in curing the blind man, were abundantly sufficient to confute such a groundless slander.
    Learn hence, That the doctrine of Christ meeting with diversity of dispositions, it is no wonder that it occasions different effects, to the softening of some, and hardening of others:  even as the same sun that melteth the wax, hardeneth the clay; yet is not this to be imputed to the doctrine of our Saviour, but to men's corruptions which oppose the truth, and the maintainers of it.   There was a division again amongst them. WBN

Lesson 49, Seventy disciples sent to Judea, Luke 10:1-24

1.   For what purpose were the seventy sent and how were they to go?

2.   What does Jesus mean by the “harvest” (vs. 2)? How does he describe it? What would that mean?

3.   How does he describe the danger they would face as they went forth? (vs. 3).

4.   How were they to provide for themselves?

5.   As they healed the sick what were they told to say? (vs. 9).

6.   Why were they sometimes to shake the dust from their feet? What would be the occasion for doing that and what would it signify?

7.   What did he say about Chorazin and Bethsaida? To what other places did he compare them? What was the difference?

8.   Complete the verse: He that heareth __________ heareth _____________; and he that ________________ you _________________ me; and he that _________________ me ________________ him that sent me” (vs. 16). Who sent Jesus?

9.   What report did the seventy give Jesus when they returned?

10.           Jesus said he saw Satan fall as lightning from heaven. Explain how this corresponds to the report of the seventy?

11.           What authority did Jesus give those he sent? (vs. 19).

12.           For what did Jesus tell them to rejoice?

13.           How did Jesus rejoice at that time?

14.           For what was he thankful to the Father?

15.           How does God hide things from the wise and understanding but reveal them to “babes”? Who are the babes here?
Help with Lesson 49

1.   Other seventy. Seventy others besides the apostles. They were appointed for a different purpose from the apostles. The apostles were to be with him; to hear his instructions; to be witnesses of his miracles, his sufferings, his death, his resurrection and ascension, that they might there go and proclaim all these things to the world. The seventy were sent out to preach immediately, and chiefly where he himself was about to come. They were appointed for a temporary object. They were to go into the villages and towns, and prepare the way for his coming.  The number seventy was a favorite number among the Jews. Thus the family of Jacob that came into Egypt consisted of seventy, Ge 46:27. The number of elders that Moses appointed to aid him was the same, Nu 11:16,25. The number which composed the great Sanhedrim, or council of the nation, was the same. It is not improbable that our Savior appointed this number with reference to the fact that it so often occurred among the Jews, or after the example of Moses, who appointed seventy to aid him in his work; but it is evident that the office was temporary--that it had a specific design --and of course that it would be improper to attempt to find now a continuation, of it, or a parallel to it, in the Christian ministry.
   Two and two. There was much wisdom in sending them in this manner. It was done, doubtless, that they might aid one another by mutual counsel, and that they might sustain and comfort one another in their persecutions and trials. Our Lord in this showed the propriety of having a religious friend, who would be a confidant and help. Every Christian, and especially every Christian minister, needs such a friend, and should seek some one to whom he can unbosom himself, and with whom he can mingle his feelings and prayers. AB

2.   That he would send forth ekbalh. There seems to be an allusion here to the case of reapers, who, though the harvest was perfectly ripe, yet were in no hurry to cut it down. News of this is brought to the Lord of the harvest the farmer, and he is entreated to exert his authority, and hurry them out; and this he does because the harvest is spoiling for want of being reaped and gathered in. See the notes on Matt. 9:37,38 ACC
    The harvest; the need and opportunity of preaching the gospel. Laborers; preachers. Matt. 9:36-38. FBN

3.   They must therefore expect trouble, and look to a higher power than their own for protection. SDC
    Our Saviour arms his disciples against the difficulties, dangers, and discouragements which they might meet with in the course of their ministry, by telling them, that he sent them forth as lambs among wolves; thereby intimating, that the enemies of the gospel have as great an inclination, from their malicious nature, to devour and destroy the ministers of Christ, as wolves have from their natural temper to devour lambs:  Behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves. WBN

4.   Carry no purse, no wallet, no shoes; and salute no man on the way. This last was probably a common direction in cases of haste (2 Kings 4:29). Eastern salutations were tedious and overburdened with ceremony. Those in haste were excused from them. FG
    Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your purses]  eiv tav xwnav umwn, in your GIRDLES.  It is supposed that the people of the east carry their money in a fold of their girdles.  This is scarcely correct: they carry it in a purse in their bosom, under their girdles.  This I have often observed.
    In a thousand instances an apostolic preacher, who goes to the wilderness to seek the lost sheep, will be exposed to hunger and cold, and other inconveniences; he must therefore resign himself to God, depending on his providence for the necessaries of life. If God have sent him, he is bound to support him, and will do it: anxiety therefore, in him, is a double crime, as it insinuates a bad opinion of the Master who has employed him.  Every missionary should make himself master of this subject.
    Have no money in your purse, is a command, obedience to which was secured by the narrow circumstances of most of the primitive genuine preachers of the Gospel.  Whole herds of friars mendicants have professed the same principle, and abandoned themselves to voluntary poverty; but if the money be in the heart it is a worse evil.  In the former case, it may be a temptation to sin; in the latter, it must be ruinous. ACC

5.   The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you. ef umav, is just upon you. This was the general text on which they were to preach all their sermons. See it explained, Mt 3:2. ACC

6.   Shake off the dust that is under your feet for a testimony unto them. The dust of heathen lands as compared with the land of Israel was regarded as polluted and unholy (Am 2:7; Eze 27:30). The Jew, therefore, considered himself defiled by such dust. For the apostles, therefore, to shake off the dust of any city of Israel from their clothes or feet was to place that city on a level with the cities of the heathen, and to renounce all further intercourse with it. FG

7.   Woe. Rather, "Alas for thee!" an exclamation of pity more than anger. Unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. Jerome says that Chorazin was two, and Eusebius (probably through the error of his transcriber) says it was twelve miles from Capernaum. Its site is identified by the Exploration Fund with the modern Kerazeh, at the northwest end of the lake, two miles from Tell Hum (Capernaum). Its site is marked by extensive ruins, including the foundations of a synagogue, columns, and walls of buildings. Bethsaida was probably a suburb of Capernaum. We have no record of a miracle wrought at Chorazin, nor of one wrought at Bethsaida either, unless the miracles wrought at Simon's house (see on Mt 8:14-17) were in Bethsaida. Tyre and Sidon were neighboring Phoenician cities on the Mediterranean coast and were noted for their luxury and impiety. This comparison between the pagan cities on the seacoast and the Galilean cities by the lake no doubt sounded strange to Jesus' disciples, but in the years which followed Tyre and Sidon received the gospel (Ac 21:3; 27:3), and Tyre became a Christian city, while Tiberias, just south of Capernaum, became the seat of Jewish Talmudism. Sackcloth was a coarse fabric woven of goat's or camel's hair, and was worn by those who mourned. It was called sackcloth because, being strong and durable, it was used for making the large sacks in which rough articles were carried on the backs of camels. Such sacks are still so used. Ashes were put upon the head and face as additional symbols of grief. Jesus here uses these symbolic words to indicate that these cities would have repented thoroughly. FG

8.   He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. Having depicted in all their darkness the persecutions which awaited the apostles, Jesus here, by an easy transition, proceeds to declare the honor of their apostleship in that they were representatives directly of Christ, and indirectly of the Father. FG
    Luke adds that those who reject him, reject the one who sent Jesus into the world. John 5:23 “That all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father. He that honoreth not the Son honoreth not the Father that sent him.” John 6:38 “For I am come down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.”

9.   And the seventy returned with joy. The report of the seventy is more joyous than that of the twelve, for the sayings of the latter on their return were overshadowed by the news of John the Baptist's death (Lu 9:10). FG
    The devils are subject unto us. The devils obey us. We have been able to cast them out.
    Through thy name. When commanded in thy name to come out of those who are possessed. AB

10.             I beheld Satan fallen as lightning from heaven. This may be translated "I was beholding Satan fallen as lightning falls from heaven." The sense indicates that the words refer to the victories over the unclean spirits just reported by the seventy. In their successes Jesus saw Satan falling from the lofty heights with the swiftness of lightning. The overthrow of Satan was then in progress (Joh 16:11; 12:31). FG

11.             I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions. While the messengers of Christ were, no doubt, literally protected from the poisons of reptiles, etc. (Ac 28:3-6), serpents and scorpions are here to be taken an emblematic of the powers of evil. FG

12.              Because your names are written in heaven. This form of speech is taken from the ancient custom of writing the names of all the citizens in a public register, that the several families might be known, and the inheritances properly preserved. This custom is still observed even in these kingdoms, though not particularly noticed. Every child that is born in the land is ordered to be registered, with the names of its parents, and the time when born, baptized, or registered; and this register is generally kept in the parish church, or in some public place of safety. Such a register as this is called in Phil. 4:3; Rev. 3:5, &c., the book of life, i.e. the book or register where the persons were enrolled as they came into life. It appears also probable, that when any person died, or behaved improperly, his name was sought out and erased from the book, to prevent any confusion that might happen in consequence of improper persons laying claim to an estate, and to cut off the unworthy from the rights and privileges of the peaceable, upright citizens. To this custom of blotting the names of deceased and disorderly persons out of the public registers, there appear to be allusions, Exo. 32:32, where see the note; and Rev. 3:5; Deut. 9:14; 25:19; 29:20; 2 Kings 14:27; Psa. 69:28; 109:13, and in other places. ACC

13.             Rejoiced in spirit. Was truly and heartily joyous: felt an inward triumph. But tw pneumati, tw agiw, the HOLY Spirit, is the reading here of BCDKL, six others; the three Syriac, later Persic, Coptic, AEthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, all the Itala except one, and Augustin and Bede. These might be considered sufficient authority to admit the word into the text.
  I thank thee. Bishop PEARCE justly observes, the thanks are meant to be given to God for revealing them to babes, not for hiding them from the others. See ACC for Mt 11:25.

14.             That thou didst hide these things from the wise and understanding. The selfish and shrewd; the scribes and Pharisees, wise in their own conceit (Joh 9:40,41).
   And didst reveal them unto babes. The pure and childlike; the apostles and their fellows who were free from prejudice and bigoted prepossession. God hid and revealed solely by his method of presenting the truth in Christ Jesus. The proud despised him, but the humble received him. FG

15.             Babe -- used of children generally (Mt 11:25; 21:16; Lu 10:21; Ro 2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge (1Co 3:1; Heb 5:13; 1Pe 2:2). In Isa 3:4 the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward to the destruction of Jerusalem. EDB


Lesson 50, The good Samaritan, Luke 10:25-37

1.   Look up the term “lawyer” in some reference work. What does the Bible mean by the term?

2.   What did the lawyer wish to do with Jesus?

3.   What law did Jesus discuss with the lawyer?

4.   What application is made by the use of “my neighbor” in verse 29?

5.   How did Jesus show the lawyer who his neighbor was?

6.   Who were the individuals that came upon the scene of the badly wounded man?

7.   What did the Law of Moses require in such instances as are stated in the parable?

8.   What was the attitude of Jews toward Samaritans?

9.   How was the wounded man cared for?

10.             When Jesus asked the lawyer who proved to be neighbor to the badly wounded man, what was the lawyer’s answer?

11.             What did Jesus direct the lawyer to do?

Help with Lesson 50

1.   The scribes were learned men who preserved, copied and expounded the law and the tradition (Ezra 7:6,12; Neh. 8:1; Matt. 15:1-6; 23:2-4; Mark 12:35; Luke 11:52). They were also called "lawyers" (Mark 12:28; Matt. 22:35), and "doctors of the law" (Luke 5:17-21). Though the teaching of Jesus differed from the teaching of the scribes as to matter, the contrast drawn is as to manner. They spoke on the authority of Moses or the elders, but Jesus taught by his own authority. Their way was to quote minute precedents supported by endless authorities. A passage taken from later rabbinical writings starts thus: "Rabbi Zeira says, on the authority of Rabbi Jose bar Rabbi Chanina, and Rabbi Ba or Rabbi Chija on the authority of Rabbi Jochanan," etc. Contrast this with the oft-repeated "I say to you" of Jesus (Mt 5:18,20,22,26,28,34). FG
   A certain lawyer. One who professed to be well skilled in the laws of Moses; and whose business it was to explain them. AB

2.   The word for “temp” or “make trial of” is peirazw and signifies (1) "to try, attempt, assay." "to test, try, prove," in a good sense, said of Christ and of believers, Heb. 2:18, where the context shows that the temptation was the cause of suffering to Him, and only suffering, not a drawing away to sin, so that believers have the sympathy of Christ as their High Priest in the suffering which sin occasions to those who are in the enjoyment of communion with God; so in the similar passage in 4:15; in all the temptations which Christ endured, there was nothing within Him that answered to sin. There was no sinful infirmity in Him. While He was truly man, and His divine nature was not in any way inconsistent with His Manhood, there was nothing in Him such as is produced in us by the sinful nature which belongs to us. - WEV
The lawyer wished to make trial of the skill of Jesus in solving the intricate and difficult question as to how to obtain salvation. Jesus was probably teaching in some house or courtyard, and his habit of giving local color to his parables suggests that he was probably in or near Bethany, through which the road from Jerusalem to Jericho passes. The lawyer stood up to attract attention to himself, and thus give emphasis to his question and its answer. FG

3.   Thou shalt love the Lord thy God-That is, thou shalt unite all the faculties of thy soul to render him the most intelligent and sincere, the most affectionate and resolute service.  We may safely rest in this general sense of these important words, if we are not able to fix the particular meaning of every single word.  If we desire to do this, perhaps the heart, which is a general expression, may be explained by the three following, With all thy soul, with the warmest affection, with all thy strength, the most vigorous efforts of thy will, and with all thy mind or understanding, in the most wise and reasonable manner thou canst; thy understanding guiding thy will and affections.  Deut. 6:5; Lev. 19:18. JWN

4.   Which of these three, thinkest thou, proved neighbor unto him that fell among the robbers? Instead of answering didactically, "Everybody is your neighbor," Jesus had incarnated the law of neighborliness in the good Samaritan, and had made it so beautiful that the lawyer could not but commend it even when found in a representative of this apostate race. He showed, too, that the law was not for causistry but for practice. FG

5.   Jesus in this beautiful narrative showed him who and what a neighbour was, and he did this in a way that disarmed his prejudice, deeply affected him in regard to his own duty, and evinced the beauty of religion.  Had he at first told him that a Samaritan might be a neighbour to a Jew and deserve his kindness, he would have been at once revolted at it; but when, by a beautiful and affecting narrative, he brought the man himself to see that it might be, he was constrained to admit it. Here we see the beauty of a parable and its use. It disarmed prejudice, fixed the attention, took the mind gently yet irresistibly, and prevented the possibility of cavil or objection.  Compare, also, the address of Nathan to David, 2 Sam. 12:1-7. AB

6.   Priest and Levite are mentioned here, partly because they were the most frequent travelers on this road, and partly to show that these were the persons who, from the nature of their office, were most obliged to perform works of mercy; and from whom a person in distress had a right to expect immediate succour and comfort; and their inhuman conduct here was a flat breach of the law, Deut. 22:1-4.
   Samaritan is mentioned merely to show that he was a person from whom a Jew had no right to expect any help or relief, because of the enmity which subsisted between the two nations. ACC

7.   Exo. 23:4; Deut. 22:1-4).

8.    After the return from the Captivity, the Jews in Jerusalem refused to allow them to take part with them in rebuilding the temple, and hence sprang up an open enmity between them. They erected a rival temple on Mount Gerizim, which was, however, destroyed by a Jewish king (B.C. 130). They then built another at Shechem. The bitter enmity between the Jews and Samaritans continued in the time of our Lord: the Jews had "no dealings with the Samaritans" (Joh 4:9; comp. Lu 9:52,53). Our Lord was in contempt called "a Samaritan" (Joh 8:48). EBD

9.   He took out two shillings. The shilling or denarius was worth about seventeen cents, but it represented the price of a day's labor.
  And gave them to the host. The innkeeper. Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, I, when I come back again, will repay thee. The compassion of the Samaritan bore full fruitage. However heterodox he was, he was after all a worshiper of Jehovah and more orthodox at heart than either the priest or the Levite. Though it was not customary for an inn- keeper to furnish food either for man or beast, he could do so if he chose out of his own stores. The scant cash left by the Samaritan indicates a poverty which made his charity the more praiseworthy. His eye and heart and hand and foot and purse were all subservient to the law of God. FG

10.             Was neighbor; the ruler, who would have restricted the word neighbor to a very narrow circle of friends, is shown that all men whom he has the power of benefiting are his neighbors, and that he owes to all a debt of love and self-denial. FBB

11.             Go, and do thou likewise Be even to thy enemy in distress as kind, humane, and merciful, as this Samaritan was. As the distress was on the part of a Jew, and the relief was afforded by a Samaritan, the lawyer, to be consistent with the decision he had already given, must feel the force of our Lord's inference, that it was his duty to act to any person, of whatever nation or religion he might be, as this Samaritan had acted toward his countryman. It is very likely that what our Lord relates here was a real matter of fact, and not a parable; otherwise the captious lawyer might have objected that no such case had ever existed, and that any inference drawn from it was only begging the question; but as he was, in all probability, in possession of the fact himself, he was forced to acknowledge the propriety of our Lord's inference and advice.
   Those who are determined to find something allegorical, even in the plainest portions of Scripture, affirm that the whole of this relation is to be allegorically considered; and, according to them, the following is the true exposition of the text. ACC

Lesson 51, Jesus in Mary and Martha’s house, and the disciples wish to know how to pray, Luke 10:38-11:14

1.   Who was Martha?

2.   Who was Mary and what does the text say she was doing?

3.   What complaint did Martha have?

4.   What did Jesus say to Martha about her complaint?

5.   When Jesus finished a prayer, what did his disciples request of him?

6.   What does “Hallowed” mean?

7.   What does “Thy kingdom come” imply and should we pray for that now that the kingdom has come?

8.   What is “daily breat?”

9.   What condition does Jesus attach to our receiving forgivness?

10.             What is to be prayed in regard to temptation and evil?

11.             What is the obvious purpose of the question in verses 5-7 of chapter 11?

12.             Complete the verse: “And I say unto you, ___________, and it shall be given you; _______________, and ye shall find; ___________, and it shall be opened unto you” (verse 9). What application does this have to what Jesus said about prayer?

13.             How does Jesus compare human fathers with God, the Father?

14.             How is the word “evil” (in “ye being evil”) intended? In what sense were the disciples “evil?”

Help with Lesson 51

1.   Martha belonged to Bethany, and was the sister of Lazarus and Mary (Joh 11:1 f). From the fact that the house into which Jesus was received belonged to Martha, and that she generally took the lead in action, it is inferred that she was the eider sister. Martha was one of those who gave hospitality to Jesus during His public ministry. Thus, in the course of those wanderings which began when "he stedfastly set his face to go to Jerus" (Lu 9:51), he "entered into a certain village"--its name is not stated--and "a certain woman named Martha received him into her house" (Lu 10:38). Martha, whose sense of responsibility as hostess weighed heavily upon her, was "cumbered about much serving," and her indignation was aroused at the lack of assistance given to her by her sister. Her words, "Lord, dost thou not care?" implied a certain reproach to Jesus also, in that she felt He showed a want of sympathy with her efforts and was the cause of Mary's remissness. But Jesus, in tones of gentle reproof, reminded her that for Him not the preparation of an elaborate meal but the hearing of His Word in the spirit of Mary was the "one thing needful" (Lu 10:39-42). ISBE

2.   And she had a sister called Mary, who also sat at the Lord's feet, and heard his word. Sitting at the feet was the ancient posture of pupils (Ac 22:3). Martha honored Christ as a Guest, but Mary honored him as a Teacher. FG

3.   But Martha was cumbered about much serving. She was evidently preparing an elaborate repast, and was experiencing the worry and distraction which usually accompanies such effort.
  Lord, dost thou not care that my sister did leave me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me. Martha so forms her appeal to Christ as to make it a covert insinuation that Mary would not listen to her requests. FG

4.   But one thing is needful. That is, religion, or piety. This is eminently and peculiarly needful. Other things are of little importance. This should be secured first, and then all other things will be added. See 1 Tim. 4:8; Matt. 6:33. AB
   One thing is needful] This is the end of the sentence, according to Bengel. "Now Mary hath chosen, &c.," begins a new one. One single dish, the simplest and plainest possible, is such as best suits me and my disciples, whose meat and drink it is to do the will of our heavenly Father. ACC

5.   Teach us to Pray. Probably they had been struck with the excellency and fervour of his prayers, and, recollecting that John had taught his disciples to pray, they asked him also to teach them. We learn, therefore--
1st. That the gifts and graces of others should lead us to desire the same.
2nd. That the true method of praying can be learned only by our being properly taught. Indeed, we cannot pray acceptably at all unless God shall teach us how to pray.
3rd. That it is proper for us to meditate beforehand what we are to ask of God, and to arrange our thoughts, that we may not come thoughtlessly into his presence. AB

6.   Hallowed -- "to render or treat as holy," Anglo-Saxon halgian, from halig, "holy"): It translates several forms of qadhash, "set apart," "devote," "consecrate," frequently rendered in the King James Version, the Revised Version (British and American), the American Standard Revised Version "consecrate," "dedicate," "holy," and especially "sanctify," closely synonymous, "hallow" perhaps containing more of the thought of reverence, sacredness, holiness. It embraces the idea of marked separateness. ISBE

7.   Both John the Baptist and Jesus preached that the kingdom was yet in the future (Matt. 3:2; 4:7). Instructing his disciples to pray for it to come did not mean the kingdom would not come; rather it was designed to keep them ready and prepared for its soon establishment. (See Mark 9:1; Matt. 11:12; Luke 17:20-21).

8.   allHBread, sufficient for our substance and support, i.e. That quantity of food which is necessary to support our health and strength, by being changed into the substance of our bodies.  Its composition is of epi and ousia, proper or sufficient for support. ACC

9.   As we also have forgiven. Our debts, or sins, will not be forgiven us by God unless we are forgiving.  All through this prayer it is taken for granted that we cannot ask for ourselves what we deny to others. TC

10.             And bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil \one.| This petition, to be effective, must be followed by an earnest effort on our part to fulfill it. We prefer to read "the evil," rather than "the evil one," for the neuter is more comprehensive (2Ti 4:18), and includes deliverance from the evil thoughts of man's own heart, and from evils from without as well as temptations of Satan. As to the prayer generally, we note the following: It is divided into two sections, and each section is subdivided into three heads. Of these the first three are invocations for the glory of God; thus: 1. That God may be glorified in his name, so that it shall be universally reverenced; 2. That God may be glorified in his kingdom--that kingdom before which every power of evil shall eventually fall; 3. That God may be glorified in the hearts of humanity by all men becoming obedient unto his will (Mt 6:9,10). These petitions come first, for it is of first importance to us that God should be honored in his person, in his authority and in his desires. The three petitions represent three stages of spiritual growth in the communion and fellowship with God. We first know and revere his name as God. From that we advance to the full recognition of his royal and divine authority. And from this in turn we again advance until we know him fully as Father, and, forgetting his authority, perform his wishes through the joyous constraint of love, as do the angels in heaven. The second three petitions are for humanity; thus: 1. For their bodies, that they may have sustenance (Mt 6:11). It is not a petition for milk and honey, symbols of luxury, but for bread, life's staff and necessity, and for bread in moderation--bestowed day by day, like the manna. 2. For their souls in things concerning the past--that past trespasses may be forgiven (Mt 6:12). This is the one thing needful to the soul in regard to the past. Since a certain soul condition is necessary (namely: the spirit of forgiveness), as a condition precedent to obtaining this petition, that condition is plainly stated in the petition itself. 3. For their souls as to the future, that they may be enabled to avoid temptation, and that they may be finally delivered from evil (Mt 6:13). God does not tempt us (Jas 1:13), but he can permit us to be led into temptation, or he can shield us from it, only permitting us to enter so far into it as to come off victorious over it (1Co 10:13; 2Pe 2:9); so that it shall prove unto us a blessing instead of a curse (Jas 1:12; 5:11). FG

11.             Jesus proceeds to show that, in order to obtain the blessing, it was necessary to persevere in asking for it. For this purpose he introduces the case of a friend's asking bread of another for one who had come to him unexpectedly. His design is solely to show the necessity of being importunate or persevering in prayer to God. ACC

12.             Ask, and it shall be given; now comes the application of the parable. Be importunate in asking, seeking, and knocking at God's door, and you will be heard and answered. God often delays answering prayer, that he may try the faith and earnestness of the suppliant. 9-13. Asking of God in pray. FBN

13.             The second parable which our Saviour makes use of, is that of a father to his children; Christ represents the care and kindness of God towards us by the affections which earthly parents bear to their natural children, who though they be many times evil themselves, yet are not wont to deny their children necessary good things, when they dutifully and decently beg them at their hands. WBN

14.             The use of “evil” does not imply the disciples were depraved wicked men. It is used in contrast to God, the Father, in whom there is nothing evil. God is perfect; all mere men are imperfect. Whereas human fathers do err in what they provide for their children; the Father above never errs in his gracious gifts.

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